Serial analysis of gene expression followed by pathway analysis implicated the tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) in melanoma progression. Tight junction proteins regulate the paracellular transport of molecules, but staining of a tissue microarray revealed that claudin-1 was overexpressed in melanoma, and aberrantly expressed in the cytoplasm of malignant cells, suggesting a role other than transport. Indeed, melanoma cells in culture demonstrate no tight junction function. It has been shown that protein kinase C (PKC) can affect expression of claudin-1 in rat choroid plexus cells, and we observed a correlation between levels of activated PKC and claudin expression in our melanoma cells. To determine if PKC could affect the expression of CLDN1 in human melanoma, cells lacking endogenous claudin-1 were treated with 200 nM phorbol myristic acid (PMA). PKC activation by PMA caused an increase in CLDN1 transcription in 30 min, and an increase in claudin-1 protein by 12 h. Inhibition of PKC signaling in cells with high claudin-1 expression resulted in decreased claudin-1 expression. CLDN1 appears to contribute to melanoma cell invasion, as transient transfection of melanoma cells with CLDN1 increased metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) secretion and activation, and subsequently, motility of melanoma cells as demonstrated by wound-healing assays. Conversely, knockdown of CLDN1 by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of motility, as well as decreases in MMP-2 secretion and activation. These data implicate claudin-1 in melanoma progression.
|Publication status||Published - 2007|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
- claudin, melanoma, PKC, motility, tissue array