Co-combustion of coal and olive oil industry residues in fluidised bed

L. Armesto (Corresponding Author), A. Bahillo, A. Cabanillas, Kati Veijonen, J. Otero, A. Plumed, L. Salvador

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

108 Citations (Scopus)


Recently new environmental regulations of fossil fuels have further increased interest in the use of waste and biomass for energy generation. Co-combustion is generally viewed as the most cost-effective approach to biomass and wastes utilisation by the electric utility industry.

The aim of this paper is to assess the feasibility of co-firing coal and a very specific biomass waste from the olive oil industry: foot cake, in a fluidised bed. This waste is quite difficult material to be used in combustion process, due to its high moisture content and alkaline content in ashes.

Two different Spanish coals were selected for this study: a lignite and an anthracite. The combustion tests were carried out in the CIEMAT bubbling fluidised bed pilot plant. In order to study the effect of different parameters on the emissions and combustion efficiency, the tests were done using different operating conditions: furnace temperature, share of foot cake in the mixtures and coal type.

The pilot plant tests show that the combustion of foot cake/lignite or anthracite mixtures in bubbling fluidised bed is one way to utilise this biomass residue in energy generation. The presence of foot cake in the mixtures has not any significant effect on the combustion efficiency. SO2 and NOx emissions decrease when the amount of foot cake in the mixtures increases, while N2O emission increases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)993-1000
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • co-combustion
  • fluidized bed combustion
  • fluidized beds
  • olive oil residues
  • olive oil
  • biomass


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