Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed: A study of deposits and emissions

Patrik Yrjäs, Martti Aho, Maria Zevenhoven, Raili Taipale, Jaani Silvennoinen, Mikko Hupa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It has been shown that addition of either sulfur and/or aluminosilicates such as kaolinite may reduce alkali induced deposit formation when firing biomass fuels. Sewage sludge is a fuel containing substantial amounts of sulfur and aluminosilicates, such as zeolites. In this work different amounts of sewage sludge (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%en) were co-fired with bark in a bench-scale BFB. SO2 and HCl emissions were measured and deposits were sampled during 3 hrs with an air-cooled probe with a surface temperature of 500°C at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 850°C and 650°C, respectively. The test results showed that an increase of the share of sewage sludge to the fuel mixture increased the formation of HCl and simultaneously decreased the Cl-content in the deposits. Usually this is considered to be a sign of sulfation of alkali chlorides. However, the increase of HCl can also be caused by Al-silicates capturing alkali, thus releasing Cl as HCl to the gas phase. Although, sulfur increased in the fuel input with an increased share of sewage sludge, this was not reflected in the gaseous emissions as may be expected. Up to 4%en sewage sludge was fired together with bark without increasing the sulfur content in the emissions. At higher shares of sewage sludge the sulfur emissions increased linearly with an increase of sewage sludge. The amount of water soluble potassium fed into the boiler remained relatively constant in the different tests. This potassium is usually released as volatile salts. Nevertheless, the amount found in deposits decreased with an increase in sludge feeding. In this paper it was shown that interaction of potassium with Al-silicates in the bed is a probable cause for the decrease of potassium in the deposits, while both the sulfation of potassium chlorides and possibly also, the alkali capture by Al-silicates can weaken the deposition of Cl. (14 refs.)
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion
Place of PublicationBeijing
Pages922-929
ISBN (Electronic)9783642026812
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
Event20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion - Xi'an, China
Duration: 18 May 200921 May 2009

Conference

Conference20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion
CountryChina
CityXi'an
Period18/05/0921/05/09

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bark
potassium
sulfur
silicate
aluminosilicate
sulfur emission
potassium chloride
firing
sewage sludge
kaolinite
surface temperature
sludge
probe
chloride
salt
biomass
air
gas
temperature

Cite this

Yrjäs, P., Aho, M., Zevenhoven, M., Taipale, R., Silvennoinen, J., & Hupa, M. (2009). Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed: A study of deposits and emissions. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion (pp. 922-929). Beijing.
Yrjäs, Patrik ; Aho, Martti ; Zevenhoven, Maria ; Taipale, Raili ; Silvennoinen, Jaani ; Hupa, Mikko. / Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed : A study of deposits and emissions. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Beijing, 2009. pp. 922-929
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title = "Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed: A study of deposits and emissions",
abstract = "It has been shown that addition of either sulfur and/or aluminosilicates such as kaolinite may reduce alkali induced deposit formation when firing biomass fuels. Sewage sludge is a fuel containing substantial amounts of sulfur and aluminosilicates, such as zeolites. In this work different amounts of sewage sludge (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8{\%}en) were co-fired with bark in a bench-scale BFB. SO2 and HCl emissions were measured and deposits were sampled during 3 hrs with an air-cooled probe with a surface temperature of 500°C at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 850°C and 650°C, respectively. The test results showed that an increase of the share of sewage sludge to the fuel mixture increased the formation of HCl and simultaneously decreased the Cl-content in the deposits. Usually this is considered to be a sign of sulfation of alkali chlorides. However, the increase of HCl can also be caused by Al-silicates capturing alkali, thus releasing Cl as HCl to the gas phase. Although, sulfur increased in the fuel input with an increased share of sewage sludge, this was not reflected in the gaseous emissions as may be expected. Up to 4{\%}en sewage sludge was fired together with bark without increasing the sulfur content in the emissions. At higher shares of sewage sludge the sulfur emissions increased linearly with an increase of sewage sludge. The amount of water soluble potassium fed into the boiler remained relatively constant in the different tests. This potassium is usually released as volatile salts. Nevertheless, the amount found in deposits decreased with an increase in sludge feeding. In this paper it was shown that interaction of potassium with Al-silicates in the bed is a probable cause for the decrease of potassium in the deposits, while both the sulfation of potassium chlorides and possibly also, the alkali capture by Al-silicates can weaken the deposition of Cl. (14 refs.)",
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Yrjäs, P, Aho, M, Zevenhoven, M, Taipale, R, Silvennoinen, J & Hupa, M 2009, Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed: A study of deposits and emissions. in Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Beijing, pp. 922-929, 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, Xi'an, China, 18/05/09.

Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed : A study of deposits and emissions. / Yrjäs, Patrik; Aho, Martti; Zevenhoven, Maria; Taipale, Raili; Silvennoinen, Jaani; Hupa, Mikko.

Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Beijing, 2009. p. 922-929.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed

T2 - A study of deposits and emissions

AU - Yrjäs, Patrik

AU - Aho, Martti

AU - Zevenhoven, Maria

AU - Taipale, Raili

AU - Silvennoinen, Jaani

AU - Hupa, Mikko

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - It has been shown that addition of either sulfur and/or aluminosilicates such as kaolinite may reduce alkali induced deposit formation when firing biomass fuels. Sewage sludge is a fuel containing substantial amounts of sulfur and aluminosilicates, such as zeolites. In this work different amounts of sewage sludge (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%en) were co-fired with bark in a bench-scale BFB. SO2 and HCl emissions were measured and deposits were sampled during 3 hrs with an air-cooled probe with a surface temperature of 500°C at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 850°C and 650°C, respectively. The test results showed that an increase of the share of sewage sludge to the fuel mixture increased the formation of HCl and simultaneously decreased the Cl-content in the deposits. Usually this is considered to be a sign of sulfation of alkali chlorides. However, the increase of HCl can also be caused by Al-silicates capturing alkali, thus releasing Cl as HCl to the gas phase. Although, sulfur increased in the fuel input with an increased share of sewage sludge, this was not reflected in the gaseous emissions as may be expected. Up to 4%en sewage sludge was fired together with bark without increasing the sulfur content in the emissions. At higher shares of sewage sludge the sulfur emissions increased linearly with an increase of sewage sludge. The amount of water soluble potassium fed into the boiler remained relatively constant in the different tests. This potassium is usually released as volatile salts. Nevertheless, the amount found in deposits decreased with an increase in sludge feeding. In this paper it was shown that interaction of potassium with Al-silicates in the bed is a probable cause for the decrease of potassium in the deposits, while both the sulfation of potassium chlorides and possibly also, the alkali capture by Al-silicates can weaken the deposition of Cl. (14 refs.)

AB - It has been shown that addition of either sulfur and/or aluminosilicates such as kaolinite may reduce alkali induced deposit formation when firing biomass fuels. Sewage sludge is a fuel containing substantial amounts of sulfur and aluminosilicates, such as zeolites. In this work different amounts of sewage sludge (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%en) were co-fired with bark in a bench-scale BFB. SO2 and HCl emissions were measured and deposits were sampled during 3 hrs with an air-cooled probe with a surface temperature of 500°C at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 850°C and 650°C, respectively. The test results showed that an increase of the share of sewage sludge to the fuel mixture increased the formation of HCl and simultaneously decreased the Cl-content in the deposits. Usually this is considered to be a sign of sulfation of alkali chlorides. However, the increase of HCl can also be caused by Al-silicates capturing alkali, thus releasing Cl as HCl to the gas phase. Although, sulfur increased in the fuel input with an increased share of sewage sludge, this was not reflected in the gaseous emissions as may be expected. Up to 4%en sewage sludge was fired together with bark without increasing the sulfur content in the emissions. At higher shares of sewage sludge the sulfur emissions increased linearly with an increase of sewage sludge. The amount of water soluble potassium fed into the boiler remained relatively constant in the different tests. This potassium is usually released as volatile salts. Nevertheless, the amount found in deposits decreased with an increase in sludge feeding. In this paper it was shown that interaction of potassium with Al-silicates in the bed is a probable cause for the decrease of potassium in the deposits, while both the sulfation of potassium chlorides and possibly also, the alkali capture by Al-silicates can weaken the deposition of Cl. (14 refs.)

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 9787302201465

SP - 922

EP - 929

BT - Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion

CY - Beijing

ER -

Yrjäs P, Aho M, Zevenhoven M, Taipale R, Silvennoinen J, Hupa M. Co-firing of sewage sludge with bark in a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed: A study of deposits and emissions. In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Beijing. 2009. p. 922-929