CODIA Deliverable 5: Final Study Report

Risto Kulmala, Pekka Leviäkangas, Niina Sihvola, Pirkko Rämä, Jonathan Francics, Ewan Hardman, Simon Ball, Bob Smith, Tim Barlow, Alan Stevens, Ian McCrae

    Research output: Book/ReportReport


    CODIA (Co-Operative Systems Deployment Impact Assessment) aimed to provide an independent assessment of direct and indirect impacts, costs and benefits of five co-operative systems:
    • Speed adaptation due to weather conditions, obstacles or congestion (V2I and I2Vcommunication)
    • Reversible lanes due to traffic flow (V2I and I2V)
    • Local danger / hazard warning (V2V)
    • Post crash warning (V2V)
    •Cooperative intersection collision warning (V2V and V2I)

    The vehicle fleets and annual kilometres driven were forecasted up to 2030. The new vehicle penetration rates as well as retrofit system penetrations were transferred to forecasted penetrations of whole vehicle fleet and kilometres travelled in EU25 in 2020 and 2030. The infrastructure equipment rates were forecasted for the three systems requiring infrastructure components. The effects of the systems were assessed with state of the art methodologies used in recent European projects. The results were validated in a specific workshop.

    Concerning the safety impacts of the five cooperative systems, speed adaptation system and local danger warning were estimated to have considerable safety impacts already by 2030, but all systems suffer from low vehicle fleet penetration and infrastructure coverage. All systems have safety benefits, which also result in reductions in accident related congestion. Dynamic speed adaptation showed most potential (-7%) to decrease fatalities. Cooperative intersection collision warning has highest potential (-7%) to reduce injuries.

    Concerning the direct traffic impacts of the system, the speed adaptation and local danger warning cause the highest increases in journey time. The changes in journey times are very small for post crash warning and reversible lane control. This is due to the facts that on the EU25 level, the occurrence of congestion and poor weather conditions is much more frequent than the occurrence of accidents and the a very small part of the motorway and urban networks are deemed to be suitable for reversible lane operation.

    The direct emission effects are very small for all systems, and the noise impacts are negligible. The indirect emission effects due to reduced accident related congestion are somewhat larger, indicating lower emissions.

    With regard to benefit to cost ratios, speed adaptation and local danger warning indicate socio-economic profitability. Cooperative post crash warning is not socio-economically profitable due to its modest safety impacts, and reversible lane control is not profitable due to its restricted potential use.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages211
    Publication statusPublished - 2008
    MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study


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