Fungal cyclooligomer depsipeptides such as beauvericin, bassianolide, and enniatins display antibiotic, antifungal, insecticidal, broad-spectrum cancer cell antiproliferative, and cell migration inhibitory activities. We have identified a gene encoding a novel enzyme, ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR), which is the sole provider of D-hydroxyisovalerate (D-Hiv), a common precursor for cyclooligomer depsipeptide biosynthesis in Beauveria bassiana. KIVR and related hypothetical oxidoreductases encoded in fungal genomes are similar to ketopantoate reductases but not to D-hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenases. We demonstrate that a KIVR knockout B. bassiana strain can be used for the efficient mutasynthesis of unnatural beauvericin congeners. Simultaneous feeding of precursor analogues enabled the combinatorial mutasynthesis of scrambled beauvericins, some assembled entirely from unnatural precursors. The effects of the introduced structural changes on the antiproliferative and cell migration inhibitory ACHTUNGTRENNUNGactivities of these analogues were evaluated.
- Antitumor agents
- Nonribosomal peptide