Comparative and functional genome analysis of fungi for development of the protein production host Trichoderma reesei: Dissertation

Mikko Arvas

Research output: ThesisDissertationCollection of Articles


Filamentous fungi of the subphylum Pezizomycotina are well known as protein and secondary metabolite producers. Various industries take advantage of these capabilities. However, the molecular biology of yeasts, i.e. Saccharomycotina and especially that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the baker's yeast, is much better known. In an effort to explain fungal phenotypes through their genotypes we have compared protein coding gene contents of Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina. Only biomass degradation and secondary metabolism related protein families seem to have expanded recently in Pezizomycotina. Of the protein families clearly diverged between Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina, those related to mitochondrial functions emerge as the most prominent. However, the primary metabolism as described in S. cerevisiae is largely conserved in all fungi. Apart from the known secondary metabolism, Pezizomycotina have pathways that could link secondary metabolism to primary metabolism and a wealth of undescribed enzymes. Previous studies of individual Pezizomycotina genomes have shown that regardless of the difference in production efficiency and diversity of secreted proteins, the content of the known secretion machinery genes in Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina appears very similar. Genome wide analysis of gene products is therefore needed to better understand the efficient secretion of Pezizomycotina. We have developed methods applicable to transcriptome analysis of non-sequenced organisms. TRAC (Transcriptional profiling with the aid of affinity capture) has been previously developed at VTT for fast, focused transcription analysis. We introduce a version of TRAC that allows more powerful signal amplification and multiplexing. We also present computational optimisations of transcriptome analysis of non-sequenced organism and TRAC analysis in general. Trichoderma reesei is one of the most commonly used Pezizomycotina in the protein production industry. In order to understand its secretion system better and find clues for improvement of its industrial performance, we have analysed its transcriptomic response to protein secretion stress conditions. In comparison to S. cerevisiae, the response of T. reesei appears different, but still impacts on the same cellular functions. We also discovered in T. reesei interesting similarities to mammalian protein secretion stress response. Together these findings highlight targets for more detailed studies.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor Degree
Awarding Institution
  • University of Helsinki
  • Saloheimo, Markku, Supervisor
  • Pakula, Tiina, Supervisor
Award date19 Oct 2007
Place of PublicationEspoo
Print ISBNs978-951-38-7043-0
Electronic ISBNs978-951-38-7044-7
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


  • Trichoderma reesei
  • Hypocrea jecorina
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • comparative genomics
  • plant biomass degradation
  • secondary metabolism
  • transcriptome profiling
  • TRAC
  • cDNA subtraction library
  • protein secretion stress
  • Unfolded Protein Response
  • UPR
  • oxidative stress
  • histones
  • GCN4
  • CPC1
  • ATF4


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