Comparison of codes concerning winter concreting in Finland and in the Soviet Union

Heikki Miettinen, Jukka Vuorinen, Heikki Kukko

Research output: Book/ReportReport


In this study the codes and instructions concerning winter concerning in Finland and in the Soviet Union are compared with each other. The purpose of this comparison is to serve the needs of Finnish building projects in the Soviet Union, in weather conditions similar to those in Finland. This comparison of codes is concerned with concreting on building site only. In addition to the codes proper also some Finnish publications on winter concreting of instructive nature were studied . Instructions and special methods of winter concreting used in the Soviet Union are not dealt with in this study. It is difficult to compare the codes and instructions of our countries as they are. In the study, the code regulations are classified in the sequence of the technical procedure of the building process. Similarities and essential differences of parallel code regulations are examined in the comparison. The temperature of concrete is observed to ensure the strength development. According to Finnish practice, temperature measurements are carried out so that the maturity and strength of concrete can be estimated reliably. In the Soviet Union on the other hand it is ascertained by measurements that hardening temperature corresponds with the requirements of technological cards, which are primarily based on experimental results of concrete strength development. The strength development is always, however, ascertained by the test specimens stored in curing conditions similar to those of the structures. The number of the code regulations concerning the use of admixtures is by far greater in the Soviet Union than in Finland and not so strict as the Finnish ones. In the codes, regulations and instructions for the temperature of fresh concrete refer to different periods of concreting. The temperature requirements are, however, approximately of similar order. The freezing strength requirements are in the codes of the Soviet Union considerably higher as compared with the Finnish freezing strength requirements. The difference results from the different attitude towards setting the requirements, because in the Soviet codes the freezing strength is connected with the strength necessary for load-bearing capacity of the structure.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages59
ISBN (Print)951-38-1224-3
Publication statusPublished - 1981
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesValtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tiedotteita


  • concreting
  • winter
  • standards


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