Comparison of different dilution methods for measuring diesel particle emissions

Jussi Lyyränen, Jorma Jokiniemi, Esko I. Kauppinen, Hannu Vesala, Ulrika Backman

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    83 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Particle emissions from a turbo-charged diesel off-road engine were characterized with DMA + CNC and electron microscopy for comparison of different sampling and dilution systems. Four different sampling methods were used: (1) two ejector diluters, (2) partial flow and ejector diluter, (3) porous tube and ejector diluter, and (4) porous tube diluter. Number size distributions for partial flow and ejector dilution had modes at 25–30 nm and at 45–50 nm independent of the dilution ratio. The mode at 25–30 nm indicated nucleation during dilution in these experiments and was clearly most significant for the partial flow and ejector diluter setup. This was attributed to the temperature difference between exhaust gas, sample line, and partial flow diluter and cold dilution air. For other dilution systems the main mode was at 45 nm and indications of a mode at 15–20 nm were observed depending on the dilution ratio. Especially for the porous tube diluter, the main mechanism for particle growth was condensation on the surfaces of the existing particles. According to this study the best dilution system for obtaining a number size distribution without any significant nucleation effects was the porous tube dilution setup.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)12 - 23
    Number of pages12
    JournalAerosol Science and Technology
    Volume38
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2004
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Dilution
    diesel
    dilution
    nucleation
    Nucleation
    Sampling
    particle
    comparison
    method
    measuring
    sampling
    Dynamic mechanical analysis
    Exhaust gases
    electron microscopy
    Electron microscopy
    condensation
    Condensation
    engine
    road
    Engines

    Cite this

    Lyyränen, Jussi ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Kauppinen, Esko I. ; Vesala, Hannu ; Backman, Ulrika. / Comparison of different dilution methods for measuring diesel particle emissions. In: Aerosol Science and Technology. 2004 ; Vol. 38, No. 1. pp. 12 - 23.
    @article{71276f5c33274662bf0ada5b199b5738,
    title = "Comparison of different dilution methods for measuring diesel particle emissions",
    abstract = "Particle emissions from a turbo-charged diesel off-road engine were characterized with DMA + CNC and electron microscopy for comparison of different sampling and dilution systems. Four different sampling methods were used: (1) two ejector diluters, (2) partial flow and ejector diluter, (3) porous tube and ejector diluter, and (4) porous tube diluter. Number size distributions for partial flow and ejector dilution had modes at 25–30 nm and at 45–50 nm independent of the dilution ratio. The mode at 25–30 nm indicated nucleation during dilution in these experiments and was clearly most significant for the partial flow and ejector diluter setup. This was attributed to the temperature difference between exhaust gas, sample line, and partial flow diluter and cold dilution air. For other dilution systems the main mode was at 45 nm and indications of a mode at 15–20 nm were observed depending on the dilution ratio. Especially for the porous tube diluter, the main mechanism for particle growth was condensation on the surfaces of the existing particles. According to this study the best dilution system for obtaining a number size distribution without any significant nucleation effects was the porous tube dilution setup.",
    author = "Jussi Lyyr{\"a}nen and Jorma Jokiniemi and Kauppinen, {Esko I.} and Hannu Vesala and Ulrika Backman",
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    Comparison of different dilution methods for measuring diesel particle emissions. / Lyyränen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Vesala, Hannu; Backman, Ulrika.

    In: Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 1, 2004, p. 12 - 23.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Comparison of different dilution methods for measuring diesel particle emissions

    AU - Lyyränen, Jussi

    AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

    AU - Kauppinen, Esko I.

    AU - Vesala, Hannu

    AU - Backman, Ulrika

    PY - 2004

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    N2 - Particle emissions from a turbo-charged diesel off-road engine were characterized with DMA + CNC and electron microscopy for comparison of different sampling and dilution systems. Four different sampling methods were used: (1) two ejector diluters, (2) partial flow and ejector diluter, (3) porous tube and ejector diluter, and (4) porous tube diluter. Number size distributions for partial flow and ejector dilution had modes at 25–30 nm and at 45–50 nm independent of the dilution ratio. The mode at 25–30 nm indicated nucleation during dilution in these experiments and was clearly most significant for the partial flow and ejector diluter setup. This was attributed to the temperature difference between exhaust gas, sample line, and partial flow diluter and cold dilution air. For other dilution systems the main mode was at 45 nm and indications of a mode at 15–20 nm were observed depending on the dilution ratio. Especially for the porous tube diluter, the main mechanism for particle growth was condensation on the surfaces of the existing particles. According to this study the best dilution system for obtaining a number size distribution without any significant nucleation effects was the porous tube dilution setup.

    AB - Particle emissions from a turbo-charged diesel off-road engine were characterized with DMA + CNC and electron microscopy for comparison of different sampling and dilution systems. Four different sampling methods were used: (1) two ejector diluters, (2) partial flow and ejector diluter, (3) porous tube and ejector diluter, and (4) porous tube diluter. Number size distributions for partial flow and ejector dilution had modes at 25–30 nm and at 45–50 nm independent of the dilution ratio. The mode at 25–30 nm indicated nucleation during dilution in these experiments and was clearly most significant for the partial flow and ejector diluter setup. This was attributed to the temperature difference between exhaust gas, sample line, and partial flow diluter and cold dilution air. For other dilution systems the main mode was at 45 nm and indications of a mode at 15–20 nm were observed depending on the dilution ratio. Especially for the porous tube diluter, the main mechanism for particle growth was condensation on the surfaces of the existing particles. According to this study the best dilution system for obtaining a number size distribution without any significant nucleation effects was the porous tube dilution setup.

    U2 - 10.1080/02786820490247579

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