Comparison of ice and snow friction models in winter sports

Maria Tikanmäki, Lasse Makkonen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific


    Friction on ice and snow plays an essential role in winter sports. Theoretical models of ice and snow friction have been developed and applied, but there remains a controversy regarding their applicability and the assumptions involved. This work reviews and compares different ice and snow friction models proposed in the literature. The models considered include: the ice friction models by Evans and others (1975), Oksanen and Keinonen (1982), Akkok and others (1986), Fowler and Bejan (1993), Bäurle and others (2006) and Kietzig and others (2009, 2010a,b); the snow friction models by Colbeck (1988) and Lehtovaara (1989); and the speed-skate friction model by Lozowski and Szilder (2010). A new ice friction model developed at VTT is also described and discussed. The models include different assumptions of the mechanisms and parameters that affect ice and snow friction. These differences and their consequences are discussed and compared. The qualitative differences of their impact to winter sports are discussed and the actual friction levels calculated by these models are compared with the measurements available in the literature.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationInternational Symposium on Seasonal Snow and Ice
    Place of PublicationLahti
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
    EventInternational Symposium on Seasonal Snow and Ice - Lahti, Finland
    Duration: 28 May 20121 Jun 2012


    ConferenceInternational Symposium on Seasonal Snow and Ice


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