This study aims to examine the characteristics of two solid lignin fractions isolated from wheat straw using alkaline and acidic deep eutectic solvents (DESs). The chemical properties and morphological characteristics of the two lignin fractions were evaluated by measuring their purity, elemental composition, molecular weight and particle size distributions, and microstructure. Their chemical structure was evaluated using DRIFT (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) spectroscopy, GPC (gel permeation chromatography), TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), 31P NMR, and HSQC NMR. Our findings showed that the lignin isolated using alkaline DESs was less pure and had a smaller particle size, higher molecular weight, and thermal stability compared to the lignin isolated using acidic DESs. Their lignin structure was also determined to be different due to varying selective fractures on the linkages of lignin. These results suggest that the DES treatments could selectively extract lignin from wheat straw with different yields, compositions, morphologies, and structures, which could then provide a theoretical basis for the selection of DESs for specially appointed lignin extraction.
- wheat straw
- alkaline and acidic DESs
- morphological characteristics
- structural features