Comparison of particle emissions from small heavy fuel oil and wood-fired boilers

O. Sippula (Corresponding Author), Jouni Hokkinen, Harri Puustinen, P. Yli-Pirilä, Jorma Jokiniemi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    78 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Flue gas emissions of wood and heavy fuel oil (HFO) fired district heating units of size range 4–15 MW were studied. The emission measurements included analyses of particle mass, number and size distributions, particle chemical compositions and gaseous emissions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were carried out to interpret the experimental findings.

    In wood combustion, PM1 (fine particle emission) was mainly formed of K, S and Cl, released from the fuel. In addition PM1 contained small amounts of organic material, CO3, Na and different metals of which Zn was the most abundant. The fine particles from HFO combustion contained varying transient metals and Na that originate from the fuel, sulphuric acid, elemental carbon (soot) and organic material. The majority of particles were formed at high temperature (>800 °C) from V, Ni, Fe and Na. At the flue gas dew point (125 °C in undiluted flue gas) sulphuric acid condensed forming a liquid layer on the particles. This increases the PM1 substantially and may lead to partial dissolution of the metallic cores.

    Wood-fired grate boilers had 6–21-fold PM1 and 2–23-fold total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations upstream of the particle filters when compared to those of HFO-fired boilers. However, the use of single field electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in wood-fired grate boilers decreased particle emissions to same level or even lower as in HFO combustion. On the other hand, particles released from the HFO boilers were clearly smaller and higher in number concentration than those of wood boilers with ESPs. In addition, in contrast to wood combustion, HFO boilers produce notable SO2 emissions that contribute to secondary particle formation in the atmosphere. Due to vast differences in concentrations of gaseous and particle emissions and in the physical and chemical properties of the particles, HFO and wood fuel based energy production units are likely to have very different effects on health and climate.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)4855-4864
    Number of pages10
    JournalAtmospheric Environment
    Volume43
    Issue number32
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2009
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    combustion
    fuel wood
    comparison
    boiler
    fuel oil
    particle
    sulfuric acid
    fold
    dew point
    metal
    soot
    range size
    chemical property
    physical property
    thermodynamics
    chemical composition
    dissolution
    filter
    liquid
    atmosphere

    Keywords

    • aerosol
    • biomass
    • combustion
    • fine particles
    • particles
    • particle emissions
    • residual fuel oil

    Cite this

    Sippula, O. ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Puustinen, Harri ; Yli-Pirilä, P. ; Jokiniemi, Jorma. / Comparison of particle emissions from small heavy fuel oil and wood-fired boilers. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2009 ; Vol. 43, No. 32. pp. 4855-4864.
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    abstract = "Flue gas emissions of wood and heavy fuel oil (HFO) fired district heating units of size range 4–15 MW were studied. The emission measurements included analyses of particle mass, number and size distributions, particle chemical compositions and gaseous emissions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were carried out to interpret the experimental findings.In wood combustion, PM1 (fine particle emission) was mainly formed of K, S and Cl, released from the fuel. In addition PM1 contained small amounts of organic material, CO3, Na and different metals of which Zn was the most abundant. The fine particles from HFO combustion contained varying transient metals and Na that originate from the fuel, sulphuric acid, elemental carbon (soot) and organic material. The majority of particles were formed at high temperature (>800 °C) from V, Ni, Fe and Na. At the flue gas dew point (125 °C in undiluted flue gas) sulphuric acid condensed forming a liquid layer on the particles. This increases the PM1 substantially and may lead to partial dissolution of the metallic cores.Wood-fired grate boilers had 6–21-fold PM1 and 2–23-fold total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations upstream of the particle filters when compared to those of HFO-fired boilers. However, the use of single field electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in wood-fired grate boilers decreased particle emissions to same level or even lower as in HFO combustion. On the other hand, particles released from the HFO boilers were clearly smaller and higher in number concentration than those of wood boilers with ESPs. In addition, in contrast to wood combustion, HFO boilers produce notable SO2 emissions that contribute to secondary particle formation in the atmosphere. Due to vast differences in concentrations of gaseous and particle emissions and in the physical and chemical properties of the particles, HFO and wood fuel based energy production units are likely to have very different effects on health and climate.",
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    author = "O. Sippula and Jouni Hokkinen and Harri Puustinen and P. Yli-Piril{\"a} and Jorma Jokiniemi",
    year = "2009",
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    Comparison of particle emissions from small heavy fuel oil and wood-fired boilers. / Sippula, O. (Corresponding Author); Hokkinen, Jouni; Puustinen, Harri; Yli-Pirilä, P.; Jokiniemi, Jorma.

    In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 43, No. 32, 2009, p. 4855-4864.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Comparison of particle emissions from small heavy fuel oil and wood-fired boilers

    AU - Sippula, O.

    AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

    AU - Puustinen, Harri

    AU - Yli-Pirilä, P.

    AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

    PY - 2009

    Y1 - 2009

    N2 - Flue gas emissions of wood and heavy fuel oil (HFO) fired district heating units of size range 4–15 MW were studied. The emission measurements included analyses of particle mass, number and size distributions, particle chemical compositions and gaseous emissions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were carried out to interpret the experimental findings.In wood combustion, PM1 (fine particle emission) was mainly formed of K, S and Cl, released from the fuel. In addition PM1 contained small amounts of organic material, CO3, Na and different metals of which Zn was the most abundant. The fine particles from HFO combustion contained varying transient metals and Na that originate from the fuel, sulphuric acid, elemental carbon (soot) and organic material. The majority of particles were formed at high temperature (>800 °C) from V, Ni, Fe and Na. At the flue gas dew point (125 °C in undiluted flue gas) sulphuric acid condensed forming a liquid layer on the particles. This increases the PM1 substantially and may lead to partial dissolution of the metallic cores.Wood-fired grate boilers had 6–21-fold PM1 and 2–23-fold total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations upstream of the particle filters when compared to those of HFO-fired boilers. However, the use of single field electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in wood-fired grate boilers decreased particle emissions to same level or even lower as in HFO combustion. On the other hand, particles released from the HFO boilers were clearly smaller and higher in number concentration than those of wood boilers with ESPs. In addition, in contrast to wood combustion, HFO boilers produce notable SO2 emissions that contribute to secondary particle formation in the atmosphere. Due to vast differences in concentrations of gaseous and particle emissions and in the physical and chemical properties of the particles, HFO and wood fuel based energy production units are likely to have very different effects on health and climate.

    AB - Flue gas emissions of wood and heavy fuel oil (HFO) fired district heating units of size range 4–15 MW were studied. The emission measurements included analyses of particle mass, number and size distributions, particle chemical compositions and gaseous emissions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were carried out to interpret the experimental findings.In wood combustion, PM1 (fine particle emission) was mainly formed of K, S and Cl, released from the fuel. In addition PM1 contained small amounts of organic material, CO3, Na and different metals of which Zn was the most abundant. The fine particles from HFO combustion contained varying transient metals and Na that originate from the fuel, sulphuric acid, elemental carbon (soot) and organic material. The majority of particles were formed at high temperature (>800 °C) from V, Ni, Fe and Na. At the flue gas dew point (125 °C in undiluted flue gas) sulphuric acid condensed forming a liquid layer on the particles. This increases the PM1 substantially and may lead to partial dissolution of the metallic cores.Wood-fired grate boilers had 6–21-fold PM1 and 2–23-fold total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations upstream of the particle filters when compared to those of HFO-fired boilers. However, the use of single field electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in wood-fired grate boilers decreased particle emissions to same level or even lower as in HFO combustion. On the other hand, particles released from the HFO boilers were clearly smaller and higher in number concentration than those of wood boilers with ESPs. In addition, in contrast to wood combustion, HFO boilers produce notable SO2 emissions that contribute to secondary particle formation in the atmosphere. Due to vast differences in concentrations of gaseous and particle emissions and in the physical and chemical properties of the particles, HFO and wood fuel based energy production units are likely to have very different effects on health and climate.

    KW - aerosol

    KW - biomass

    KW - combustion

    KW - fine particles

    KW - particles

    KW - particle emissions

    KW - residual fuel oil

    U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.022

    DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.07.022

    M3 - Article

    VL - 43

    SP - 4855

    EP - 4864

    JO - Atmospheric Environment

    JF - Atmospheric Environment

    SN - 1352-2310

    IS - 32

    ER -