Comparison of seven different anesthesia protocols for nicotine pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging in rat

Jaakko Paasonen, Raimo A. Salo, Artem Shatillo, Markus M. Forsberg, Johanna Närväinen, Joanna K. Huttunen, Olli Gröhn (Corresponding Author)

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    49 Citations (Scopus)


    Pharmacologic MRI (phMRI) is a non-invasive in vivo imaging method, which can evaluate the drug effects on the brain and provide complementary information to ex vivo techniques. The preclinical phMRI studies usually require anesthesia to reduce the motion and stress of the animals. The anesthesia, however, is a crucial part of the experimental design, as it may modulate the neural drug-induced (de)activation and hemodynamic coupling. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to address this methodologic question by performing phMRI experiments with five anesthetics (a-chloralose, isoflurane, medetomidine, thiobutabarbital, and urethane) and seven anesthesia protocols. Nicotine, a widely studied psychostimulant, was administered to rats while measuring blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Notably different responses were observed depending on the anesthetic used. The highest responses were measured in urethane-anesthetized rats whereas the responses were hardly noticeable in a-chloralose group. As urethane is not commonly used in phMRI, hemodynamic coupling under urethane anesthesia was investigated with functional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume-weighted (CBVw) imaging, and simultaneous electrophysiologic and BOLD measurements. The BOLD, CBF, and CBVw measurements in response to nicotine were highly correlated (R2=0.70, p
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)518-531
    JournalEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Anesthetics
    • Magnetic resonance imaging
    • Functional
    • Nicotine
    • Pharmacology
    • Rats


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