Comparison of the sliding wear behaviour of self-mated HIPed Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 in a simulated PWR water environment

Vilma Ratia (Corresponding Author), Deen Zhang, Matthew J. Carrington, Jaimie L. Daure, D. Graham McCartney, Philip H. Shipway, David A. Stewart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Cobalt-based alloys such as Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 are widely used to protect stainless steel surfaces in primary circuit nuclear reactor applications where high resistance to wear and corrosion are required. In this study, self-mated sliding wear of Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 consolidated by hot isostatic pressing were compared. Tests were performed with a pin-on-disc apparatus enclosed in a water-submerged autoclave environment and wear was measured from room temperature up to 250 °C (a representative pressurized water reactor environment). Both alloys exhibit a microstructure of micron-sized carbides embedded in a cobalt-rich matrix. Stellite 3 (higher tungsten and carbon content) contains M7C3 and an eta (η) -carbide whereas Stellite 6 contains only M7C3. Furthermore, the former has a significantly higher carbide volume fraction and hardness than the latter. Both alloys show a significant increase in the wear rate as the temperature is increased but Stellite 3 has a higher wear resistance over the entire range; at 250 °C the wear rate of Stellite 6 is more than five times that of Stellite 3. There is only a minimal formation of a transfer layer on the sliding surfaces but electron backscatter diffraction on cross-sections through the wear scar revealed that wear causes partial transformation of the cobalt matrix from fcc to hcp in both alloys over the entire temperature range. It is proposed that the acceleration of wear with increasing temperature in the range studied is associated with a tribocorrosion mechanism and that the higher carbide fraction in Stellite 3 resulted in its reduced wear rate compared to Stellite 6.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1222-1232
Number of pages11
JournalWear
Volume426-427
Issue numberPart B
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Stellite (trademark)
Stellite
sliding
Wear of materials
Water
water
carbides
Carbides
Cobalt
cobalt
pressurized water reactors
hot isostatic pressing
Temperature
scars
Tungsten
autoclaves
Hot isostatic pressing
Pressurized water reactors
Stainless Steel
nuclear reactors

Keywords

  • Stellite
  • Cobalt-based alloys
  • Electron backscatter diffraction
  • nuclear
  • HIP

Cite this

Ratia, V., Zhang, D., Carrington, M. J., Daure, J. L., McCartney, D. G., Shipway, P. H., & Stewart, D. A. (2019). Comparison of the sliding wear behaviour of self-mated HIPed Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 in a simulated PWR water environment. Wear, 426-427(Part B), 1222-1232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2019.01.116
Ratia, Vilma ; Zhang, Deen ; Carrington, Matthew J. ; Daure, Jaimie L. ; McCartney, D. Graham ; Shipway, Philip H. ; Stewart, David A. / Comparison of the sliding wear behaviour of self-mated HIPed Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 in a simulated PWR water environment. In: Wear. 2019 ; Vol. 426-427, No. Part B. pp. 1222-1232.
@article{e1733f7a28cd4332b4631920e540b63c,
title = "Comparison of the sliding wear behaviour of self-mated HIPed Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 in a simulated PWR water environment",
abstract = "Cobalt-based alloys such as Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 are widely used to protect stainless steel surfaces in primary circuit nuclear reactor applications where high resistance to wear and corrosion are required. In this study, self-mated sliding wear of Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 consolidated by hot isostatic pressing were compared. Tests were performed with a pin-on-disc apparatus enclosed in a water-submerged autoclave environment and wear was measured from room temperature up to 250 °C (a representative pressurized water reactor environment). Both alloys exhibit a microstructure of micron-sized carbides embedded in a cobalt-rich matrix. Stellite 3 (higher tungsten and carbon content) contains M7C3 and an eta (η) -carbide whereas Stellite 6 contains only M7C3. Furthermore, the former has a significantly higher carbide volume fraction and hardness than the latter. Both alloys show a significant increase in the wear rate as the temperature is increased but Stellite 3 has a higher wear resistance over the entire range; at 250 °C the wear rate of Stellite 6 is more than five times that of Stellite 3. There is only a minimal formation of a transfer layer on the sliding surfaces but electron backscatter diffraction on cross-sections through the wear scar revealed that wear causes partial transformation of the cobalt matrix from fcc to hcp in both alloys over the entire temperature range. It is proposed that the acceleration of wear with increasing temperature in the range studied is associated with a tribocorrosion mechanism and that the higher carbide fraction in Stellite 3 resulted in its reduced wear rate compared to Stellite 6.",
keywords = "Stellite, Cobalt-based alloys, Electron backscatter diffraction, nuclear, HIP",
author = "Vilma Ratia and Deen Zhang and Carrington, {Matthew J.} and Daure, {Jaimie L.} and McCartney, {D. Graham} and Shipway, {Philip H.} and Stewart, {David A.}",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.wear.2019.01.116",
language = "English",
volume = "426-427",
pages = "1222--1232",
journal = "Wear",
issn = "0043-1648",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "Part B",

}

Ratia, V, Zhang, D, Carrington, MJ, Daure, JL, McCartney, DG, Shipway, PH & Stewart, DA 2019, 'Comparison of the sliding wear behaviour of self-mated HIPed Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 in a simulated PWR water environment', Wear, vol. 426-427, no. Part B, pp. 1222-1232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2019.01.116

Comparison of the sliding wear behaviour of self-mated HIPed Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 in a simulated PWR water environment. / Ratia, Vilma (Corresponding Author); Zhang, Deen; Carrington, Matthew J.; Daure, Jaimie L.; McCartney, D. Graham; Shipway, Philip H.; Stewart, David A.

In: Wear, Vol. 426-427, No. Part B, 04.2019, p. 1222-1232.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of the sliding wear behaviour of self-mated HIPed Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 in a simulated PWR water environment

AU - Ratia, Vilma

AU - Zhang, Deen

AU - Carrington, Matthew J.

AU - Daure, Jaimie L.

AU - McCartney, D. Graham

AU - Shipway, Philip H.

AU - Stewart, David A.

PY - 2019/4

Y1 - 2019/4

N2 - Cobalt-based alloys such as Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 are widely used to protect stainless steel surfaces in primary circuit nuclear reactor applications where high resistance to wear and corrosion are required. In this study, self-mated sliding wear of Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 consolidated by hot isostatic pressing were compared. Tests were performed with a pin-on-disc apparatus enclosed in a water-submerged autoclave environment and wear was measured from room temperature up to 250 °C (a representative pressurized water reactor environment). Both alloys exhibit a microstructure of micron-sized carbides embedded in a cobalt-rich matrix. Stellite 3 (higher tungsten and carbon content) contains M7C3 and an eta (η) -carbide whereas Stellite 6 contains only M7C3. Furthermore, the former has a significantly higher carbide volume fraction and hardness than the latter. Both alloys show a significant increase in the wear rate as the temperature is increased but Stellite 3 has a higher wear resistance over the entire range; at 250 °C the wear rate of Stellite 6 is more than five times that of Stellite 3. There is only a minimal formation of a transfer layer on the sliding surfaces but electron backscatter diffraction on cross-sections through the wear scar revealed that wear causes partial transformation of the cobalt matrix from fcc to hcp in both alloys over the entire temperature range. It is proposed that the acceleration of wear with increasing temperature in the range studied is associated with a tribocorrosion mechanism and that the higher carbide fraction in Stellite 3 resulted in its reduced wear rate compared to Stellite 6.

AB - Cobalt-based alloys such as Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 are widely used to protect stainless steel surfaces in primary circuit nuclear reactor applications where high resistance to wear and corrosion are required. In this study, self-mated sliding wear of Stellite 3 and Stellite 6 consolidated by hot isostatic pressing were compared. Tests were performed with a pin-on-disc apparatus enclosed in a water-submerged autoclave environment and wear was measured from room temperature up to 250 °C (a representative pressurized water reactor environment). Both alloys exhibit a microstructure of micron-sized carbides embedded in a cobalt-rich matrix. Stellite 3 (higher tungsten and carbon content) contains M7C3 and an eta (η) -carbide whereas Stellite 6 contains only M7C3. Furthermore, the former has a significantly higher carbide volume fraction and hardness than the latter. Both alloys show a significant increase in the wear rate as the temperature is increased but Stellite 3 has a higher wear resistance over the entire range; at 250 °C the wear rate of Stellite 6 is more than five times that of Stellite 3. There is only a minimal formation of a transfer layer on the sliding surfaces but electron backscatter diffraction on cross-sections through the wear scar revealed that wear causes partial transformation of the cobalt matrix from fcc to hcp in both alloys over the entire temperature range. It is proposed that the acceleration of wear with increasing temperature in the range studied is associated with a tribocorrosion mechanism and that the higher carbide fraction in Stellite 3 resulted in its reduced wear rate compared to Stellite 6.

KW - Stellite

KW - Cobalt-based alloys

KW - Electron backscatter diffraction

KW - nuclear

KW - HIP

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062668627&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.wear.2019.01.116

DO - 10.1016/j.wear.2019.01.116

M3 - Article

VL - 426-427

SP - 1222

EP - 1232

JO - Wear

JF - Wear

SN - 0043-1648

IS - Part B

ER -