Comparison of VOC and ammonia emissions from individual PVC materials, adhesives and from complete structures

Helena Järnström (Corresponding Author), Kristiina Saarela, Pentti Kalliokoski, A.-L. Pasanen

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Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia measured from six PVC materials and four adhesives in the laboratory were compared to the emission rates measured on site from complete structures. Significantly higher specific emission rates (SERs) were generally measured from the complete structures than from individual materials. There were large differences between different PVC materials in their permeability for VOCs originating from the underlying structure. Glycol ethers and esters from adhesives used in the installation contributed to the emissions from the PVC covered structure. Emissions of 2-ethylhexanol and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) were common. High ammonia SERs were measured from single adhesives but their contribution to the emissions from the complete structure did not appear as obvious as for VOCs. The results indicate that three factors affected the VOC emissions from the PVC flooring on a structure: 1) the permeability of the PVC product for VOCs, 2) the VOC emission from the adhesive used, and 3) the VOC emission from the backside of the PVC product.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-427
JournalEnvironment International
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • PVC
  • Adhesive
  • VOC
  • Material emission

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