Composition, utilization and economic assessment of torrefaction condensates

Leena Fagernäs (Corresponding Author), Eeva Kuoppala, Vesa Arpiainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the yields and chemical compositions of condensates formed at torrefaction conditions with different kinds of feedstocks and to assess their utilization from an economic perspective. Test runs for spruce and bamboo were carried out with a slow pyrolysis test rig, and the liquids collected at 20-105, 105-240, and 240-300 °C temperature ranges were analyzed for chemical characteristics and compositions. The results were compared with those obtained earlier for a birch condensate. The mass yields and compositions of condensates differed between the feedstocks and the temperature ranges. The amount of organic compounds in the total condensates was 12-19 wt %. The main compounds were acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, methanol, furfural, and 2-hydroxyacetaldehyde. Total condensates formed at =280 °C are promising to be utilized for different purposes, for example as a biopesticide. Higher temperatures are critical, because at 290 °C, strong exothermic reactions occur, which decreases considerably the yield of torrefied material and produces tar containing condensates. It is possible to produce, in addition to biocoal, valuable liquids. Economic assessments were performed for three torrefaction cases without and with the recovery of condensates. The production costs of torrefied pellets can be lowered significantly, for example on the order of 5-10 MWh-1 in medium scale pellet production, by recovering and selling the condensates to new applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3134-3142
JournalEnergy & Fuels
Volume29
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Feedstocks
Economics
Chemical analysis
Biological Control Agents
Furaldehyde
Tars
Furfural
Exothermic reactions
Bamboo
Tar
Liquids
Organic compounds
Acetic acid
Acetic Acid
Temperature
Methanol
Sales
Pyrolysis
Recovery
Costs

Keywords

  • torrefaction
  • batch test rig
  • wood
  • bamboo
  • condensates
  • wood vinegar
  • economic assessment

Cite this

Fagernäs, Leena ; Kuoppala, Eeva ; Arpiainen, Vesa. / Composition, utilization and economic assessment of torrefaction condensates. In: Energy & Fuels. 2015 ; Vol. 29, No. 5. pp. 3134-3142.
@article{b705c0f268604dfa908682c605a9a546,
title = "Composition, utilization and economic assessment of torrefaction condensates",
abstract = "The aim of this study was to determine the yields and chemical compositions of condensates formed at torrefaction conditions with different kinds of feedstocks and to assess their utilization from an economic perspective. Test runs for spruce and bamboo were carried out with a slow pyrolysis test rig, and the liquids collected at 20-105, 105-240, and 240-300 °C temperature ranges were analyzed for chemical characteristics and compositions. The results were compared with those obtained earlier for a birch condensate. The mass yields and compositions of condensates differed between the feedstocks and the temperature ranges. The amount of organic compounds in the total condensates was 12-19 wt {\%}. The main compounds were acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, methanol, furfural, and 2-hydroxyacetaldehyde. Total condensates formed at =280 °C are promising to be utilized for different purposes, for example as a biopesticide. Higher temperatures are critical, because at 290 °C, strong exothermic reactions occur, which decreases considerably the yield of torrefied material and produces tar containing condensates. It is possible to produce, in addition to biocoal, valuable liquids. Economic assessments were performed for three torrefaction cases without and with the recovery of condensates. The production costs of torrefied pellets can be lowered significantly, for example on the order of 5-10 MWh-1 in medium scale pellet production, by recovering and selling the condensates to new applications.",
keywords = "torrefaction, batch test rig, wood, bamboo, condensates, wood vinegar, economic assessment",
author = "Leena Fagern{\"a}s and Eeva Kuoppala and Vesa Arpiainen",
note = "Project code: 76033",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00004",
language = "English",
volume = "29",
pages = "3134--3142",
journal = "Energy & Fuels",
issn = "0887-0624",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "5",

}

Composition, utilization and economic assessment of torrefaction condensates. / Fagernäs, Leena (Corresponding Author); Kuoppala, Eeva; Arpiainen, Vesa.

In: Energy & Fuels, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2015, p. 3134-3142.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Composition, utilization and economic assessment of torrefaction condensates

AU - Fagernäs, Leena

AU - Kuoppala, Eeva

AU - Arpiainen, Vesa

N1 - Project code: 76033

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - The aim of this study was to determine the yields and chemical compositions of condensates formed at torrefaction conditions with different kinds of feedstocks and to assess their utilization from an economic perspective. Test runs for spruce and bamboo were carried out with a slow pyrolysis test rig, and the liquids collected at 20-105, 105-240, and 240-300 °C temperature ranges were analyzed for chemical characteristics and compositions. The results were compared with those obtained earlier for a birch condensate. The mass yields and compositions of condensates differed between the feedstocks and the temperature ranges. The amount of organic compounds in the total condensates was 12-19 wt %. The main compounds were acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, methanol, furfural, and 2-hydroxyacetaldehyde. Total condensates formed at =280 °C are promising to be utilized for different purposes, for example as a biopesticide. Higher temperatures are critical, because at 290 °C, strong exothermic reactions occur, which decreases considerably the yield of torrefied material and produces tar containing condensates. It is possible to produce, in addition to biocoal, valuable liquids. Economic assessments were performed for three torrefaction cases without and with the recovery of condensates. The production costs of torrefied pellets can be lowered significantly, for example on the order of 5-10 MWh-1 in medium scale pellet production, by recovering and selling the condensates to new applications.

AB - The aim of this study was to determine the yields and chemical compositions of condensates formed at torrefaction conditions with different kinds of feedstocks and to assess their utilization from an economic perspective. Test runs for spruce and bamboo were carried out with a slow pyrolysis test rig, and the liquids collected at 20-105, 105-240, and 240-300 °C temperature ranges were analyzed for chemical characteristics and compositions. The results were compared with those obtained earlier for a birch condensate. The mass yields and compositions of condensates differed between the feedstocks and the temperature ranges. The amount of organic compounds in the total condensates was 12-19 wt %. The main compounds were acetic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, methanol, furfural, and 2-hydroxyacetaldehyde. Total condensates formed at =280 °C are promising to be utilized for different purposes, for example as a biopesticide. Higher temperatures are critical, because at 290 °C, strong exothermic reactions occur, which decreases considerably the yield of torrefied material and produces tar containing condensates. It is possible to produce, in addition to biocoal, valuable liquids. Economic assessments were performed for three torrefaction cases without and with the recovery of condensates. The production costs of torrefied pellets can be lowered significantly, for example on the order of 5-10 MWh-1 in medium scale pellet production, by recovering and selling the condensates to new applications.

KW - torrefaction

KW - batch test rig

KW - wood

KW - bamboo

KW - condensates

KW - wood vinegar

KW - economic assessment

U2 - 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00004

DO - 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00004

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 3134

EP - 3142

JO - Energy & Fuels

JF - Energy & Fuels

SN - 0887-0624

IS - 5

ER -