Exhaled breath is a potential noninvasive matrix to give new information about metabolic effects of diets. In this pilot study, non-targeted analysis of exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was made by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) to explore compounds relating to whole grain (WG) diets. Nine healthy subjects participated in the dietary intervention with parallel crossover design, consisting of two high-fiber diets containing whole grain rye bread (WGR) or whole grain wheat bread (WGW) and 1-week control diets with refined wheat bread (WW) before both diet periods. Large interindividual differences were detected in the VOC composition. About 260 VOCs were detected from exhaled breath samples, in which 40 of the compounds were present in more than half of the samples. Various derivatives of benzoic acid and phenolic compounds, as well as some furanones existed in exhaled breath samples only after the WG diets, making them interesting compounds to study further.
- Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography– mass spectrometry
- Dietary fiber
- Exhaled breath
- Whole grain