Computer aided simulation of heat treatment

Raimo Arola, Hannu Martikainen, Jouko Virta

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    Abstract

    Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages54
    ISBN (Print)951-38-4249-5
    Publication statusPublished - 1993
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Publications
    Number131
    ISSN1235-0621

    Fingerprint

    Heat treatment
    Heating
    Residual stresses
    Heat transfer
    Bainite
    Phase composition
    Martensite
    Austenite
    Quenching
    Furnaces
    Temperature distribution
    Phase transitions
    Plastics
    Cooling
    Decomposition
    Kinetics
    Steel
    Experiments
    Temperature

    Keywords

    • steels
    • heat treatment
    • computerized simulation
    • mathematical models
    • simulation
    • computer programs
    • calculations
    • temperature distribution
    • residual stress
    • phase transformations
    • comparison

    Cite this

    Arola, R., Martikainen, H., & Virta, J. (1993). Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Publications, No. 131
    Arola, Raimo ; Martikainen, Hannu ; Virta, Jouko. / Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1993. 54 p. (VTT Publications; No. 131).
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    title = "Computer aided simulation of heat treatment",
    abstract = "Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.",
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    author = "Raimo Arola and Hannu Martikainen and Jouko Virta",
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    language = "English",
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    Arola, R, Martikainen, H & Virta, J 1993, Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. VTT Publications, no. 131, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

    Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. / Arola, Raimo; Martikainen, Hannu; Virta, Jouko.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1993. 54 p. (VTT Publications; No. 131).

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

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    T1 - Computer aided simulation of heat treatment

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    AU - Martikainen, Hannu

    AU - Virta, Jouko

    N1 - Project code: MRG9154

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    Y1 - 1993

    N2 - Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.

    AB - Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.

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    KW - residual stress

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    Arola R, Martikainen H, Virta J. Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1993. 54 p. (VTT Publications; No. 131).