Computer aided simulation of heat treatment

Raimo Arola, Hannu Martikainen, Jouko Virta

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

Abstract

Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages54
ISBN (Print)951-38-4249-5
Publication statusPublished - 1993
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

NameVTT Publications
PublisherVTT
No.131
ISSN (Print)1235-0621
ISSN (Electronic)1455-0849

Fingerprint

Heat treatment
Heating
Residual stresses
Heat transfer
Bainite
Phase composition
Martensite
Austenite
Quenching
Furnaces
Temperature distribution
Phase transitions
Plastics
Cooling
Decomposition
Kinetics
Steel
Experiments
Temperature

Keywords

  • steels
  • heat treatment
  • computerized simulation
  • mathematical models
  • simulation
  • computer programs
  • calculations
  • temperature distribution
  • residual stress
  • phase transformations
  • comparison

Cite this

Arola, R., Martikainen, H., & Virta, J. (1993). Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Publications, No. 131
Arola, Raimo ; Martikainen, Hannu ; Virta, Jouko. / Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1993. 54 p. (VTT Publications; No. 131).
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abstract = "Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.",
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Arola, R, Martikainen, H & Virta, J 1993, Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. VTT Publications, no. 131, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. / Arola, Raimo; Martikainen, Hannu; Virta, Jouko.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1993. 54 p. (VTT Publications; No. 131).

Research output: Book/ReportReportProfessional

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N1 - Project code: MRG9154

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N2 - Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.

AB - Computer-aided simulation of the heat treatment of components and charges is examined. Existing programs for the simulation of heat treatment are reviewed. Test simulations including calculation of temperature, phase composition and stresses and strains during heating and cooling are performed with selected programs. The results of the simulations are compared with the results of heat treating experiments. Heat transfer during heating-up varies considerably between different treatments, components of the charge and surfaces of the component. Therefore, heat transfer data defined on the baisi of the measurements has to be used in exact simulation instead of literature data. According to the simulation results non-uniform temperature distribution, plastic straining and residual stresses after heating can be formed in an AISI 316 bar heated up at the edge of a charge in a pit furnace. Permanent bending of these bars as a result of heating is not observed. In the oil quenching of a 42CrMo4 cylinder, where martensite and bainite are formed in austenite decomposition, the simulation results (especially amounts of phases and residual stresses) are crucially dependent on the TTT-diagram describing the kinetics of the phase transformations. Several TTT-diagrams for the steel grade are found, leading to different simulation results.

KW - steels

KW - heat treatment

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Arola R, Martikainen H, Virta J. Computer aided simulation of heat treatment. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1993. 54 p. (VTT Publications; No. 131).