Concrete mix designs for tunnel end plugs in nuclear waste repository

Markku Leivo, Tapio Vehmas, Erika Holt

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review


    A unique self-compacting concrete was developed for use in long-term nuclear waste repository tunnel end plugs. For stability of bentonite clay in the repository for thousands of years, the pH of the concrete leachate is required to be below 11. Two applicable mix designs were developed. A final mix design having a ternary binder composition was selected to be use in a full-scale demonstration tunnel end plug at 450 metres underground. Successful demonstration was performed after adjusting the mix design to fulfil the requirements of a batching plant production.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the XXIII Nordic Concrete Research Symposium
    Subtitle of host publicationPart 3
    PublisherThe Nordic Concrete Federation (NCF)
    ISBN (Electronic)978-82-8208-056-9
    Publication statusPublished - 2017
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventXXIII Nordic Concrete Research Symposium - Aalborg, Denmark
    Duration: 21 Aug 201723 Aug 2017

    Publication series

    SeriesNordic Concrete Research


    ConferenceXXIII Nordic Concrete Research Symposium


    • low-pH concrete
    • nuclear waste repository
    • mix design
    • full-scale demonstration


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