Conformal titanium nitride in a porous silicon matrix: A nanomaterial for in-chip supercapacitors

Kestutis Grigoras, Jari Keskinen, Leif Grönberg, Elina Yli-Rantala, Sampo Laakso, Hannu Välimäki, Pertti Kauranen, Jouni Ahopelto, Mika Prunnila (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Today's supercapacitor energy storages are typically discrete devices aimed for printed boards and power applications. The development of autonomous sensor networks and wearable electronics and the miniaturization of mobile devices would benefit substantially from solutions in which the energy storage is integrated with the active device. Nanostructures based on porous silicon (PS) provide a route towards integration due to the very high inherent surface area to volume ratio and compatibility with microelectronics fabrication processes. Unfortunately, pristine PS has limited wettability and poor chemical stability in electrolytes and the high resistance of the PS matrix severely limits the power efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate that excellent wettability and electro-chemical properties in aqueous and organic electrolytes can be obtained by coating the PS matrix with an ultra-thin layer of titanium nitride by atomic layer deposition. Our approach leads to very high specific capacitance (15 F cm-3), energy density (1.3 mWh cm-3), power density (up to 214 W cm-3) and excellent stability (more than 13,000 cycles). Furthermore, we show that the PS-TiN nanomaterial can be integrated inside a silicon chip monolithically by combining MEMS and nanofabrication techniques. This leads to realization of in-chip supercapacitor, i.e., it opens a new way to exploit the otherwise inactive volume of a silicon chip to store energy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-345
JournalNano Energy
Volume26
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Titanium nitride
Porous silicon
Nanostructured materials
Silicon
Energy storage
Electrolytes
Wetting
Atomic layer deposition
Chemical stability
Electrochemical properties
Nanotechnology
Microelectronics
Mobile devices
Sensor networks
MEMS
Nanostructures
Capacitance
Supercapacitor
titanium nitride
Fabrication

Keywords

  • supercapacitor
  • integrated energy storage
  • on-chip integration
  • porous silicon
  • ALD
  • TiN

Cite this

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title = "Conformal titanium nitride in a porous silicon matrix: A nanomaterial for in-chip supercapacitors",
abstract = "Today's supercapacitor energy storages are typically discrete devices aimed for printed boards and power applications. The development of autonomous sensor networks and wearable electronics and the miniaturization of mobile devices would benefit substantially from solutions in which the energy storage is integrated with the active device. Nanostructures based on porous silicon (PS) provide a route towards integration due to the very high inherent surface area to volume ratio and compatibility with microelectronics fabrication processes. Unfortunately, pristine PS has limited wettability and poor chemical stability in electrolytes and the high resistance of the PS matrix severely limits the power efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate that excellent wettability and electro-chemical properties in aqueous and organic electrolytes can be obtained by coating the PS matrix with an ultra-thin layer of titanium nitride by atomic layer deposition. Our approach leads to very high specific capacitance (15 F cm-3), energy density (1.3 mWh cm-3), power density (up to 214 W cm-3) and excellent stability (more than 13,000 cycles). Furthermore, we show that the PS-TiN nanomaterial can be integrated inside a silicon chip monolithically by combining MEMS and nanofabrication techniques. This leads to realization of in-chip supercapacitor, i.e., it opens a new way to exploit the otherwise inactive volume of a silicon chip to store energy.",
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author = "Kestutis Grigoras and Jari Keskinen and Leif Gr{\"o}nberg and Elina Yli-Rantala and Sampo Laakso and Hannu V{\"a}lim{\"a}ki and Pertti Kauranen and Jouni Ahopelto and Mika Prunnila",
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language = "English",
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Conformal titanium nitride in a porous silicon matrix: A nanomaterial for in-chip supercapacitors. / Grigoras, Kestutis; Keskinen, Jari; Grönberg, Leif; Yli-Rantala, Elina; Laakso, Sampo; Välimäki, Hannu; Kauranen, Pertti; Ahopelto, Jouni; Prunnila, Mika (Corresponding Author).

In: Nano Energy, Vol. 26, 2016, p. 340-345.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Conformal titanium nitride in a porous silicon matrix: A nanomaterial for in-chip supercapacitors

AU - Grigoras, Kestutis

AU - Keskinen, Jari

AU - Grönberg, Leif

AU - Yli-Rantala, Elina

AU - Laakso, Sampo

AU - Välimäki, Hannu

AU - Kauranen, Pertti

AU - Ahopelto, Jouni

AU - Prunnila, Mika

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Today's supercapacitor energy storages are typically discrete devices aimed for printed boards and power applications. The development of autonomous sensor networks and wearable electronics and the miniaturization of mobile devices would benefit substantially from solutions in which the energy storage is integrated with the active device. Nanostructures based on porous silicon (PS) provide a route towards integration due to the very high inherent surface area to volume ratio and compatibility with microelectronics fabrication processes. Unfortunately, pristine PS has limited wettability and poor chemical stability in electrolytes and the high resistance of the PS matrix severely limits the power efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate that excellent wettability and electro-chemical properties in aqueous and organic electrolytes can be obtained by coating the PS matrix with an ultra-thin layer of titanium nitride by atomic layer deposition. Our approach leads to very high specific capacitance (15 F cm-3), energy density (1.3 mWh cm-3), power density (up to 214 W cm-3) and excellent stability (more than 13,000 cycles). Furthermore, we show that the PS-TiN nanomaterial can be integrated inside a silicon chip monolithically by combining MEMS and nanofabrication techniques. This leads to realization of in-chip supercapacitor, i.e., it opens a new way to exploit the otherwise inactive volume of a silicon chip to store energy.

AB - Today's supercapacitor energy storages are typically discrete devices aimed for printed boards and power applications. The development of autonomous sensor networks and wearable electronics and the miniaturization of mobile devices would benefit substantially from solutions in which the energy storage is integrated with the active device. Nanostructures based on porous silicon (PS) provide a route towards integration due to the very high inherent surface area to volume ratio and compatibility with microelectronics fabrication processes. Unfortunately, pristine PS has limited wettability and poor chemical stability in electrolytes and the high resistance of the PS matrix severely limits the power efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate that excellent wettability and electro-chemical properties in aqueous and organic electrolytes can be obtained by coating the PS matrix with an ultra-thin layer of titanium nitride by atomic layer deposition. Our approach leads to very high specific capacitance (15 F cm-3), energy density (1.3 mWh cm-3), power density (up to 214 W cm-3) and excellent stability (more than 13,000 cycles). Furthermore, we show that the PS-TiN nanomaterial can be integrated inside a silicon chip monolithically by combining MEMS and nanofabrication techniques. This leads to realization of in-chip supercapacitor, i.e., it opens a new way to exploit the otherwise inactive volume of a silicon chip to store energy.

KW - supercapacitor

KW - integrated energy storage

KW - on-chip integration

KW - porous silicon

KW - ALD

KW - TiN

U2 - 10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.04.029

DO - 10.1016/j.nanoen.2016.04.029

M3 - Article

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SP - 340

EP - 345

JO - Nano Energy

JF - Nano Energy

SN - 2211-2855

ER -