Nanostructured TiO2 with different morphologies and crystal phases was successfully synthesized from titanium-containing electric furnace molten slag by using a hydrothermal method followed by reflux process in acid solution. The effects of acid concentration, reflux time, and acid type on the formation of TiO2 were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). It is indicated that TiO2 nanorod with rutile phase is achieved in nitric or hydrochloric acid, while anatase TiO2 nanodisk is formed in sulfuric acid. With the increase of the concentration of hydrochloric acid from 0.3 to 1.5 mol·L−1, the dispersibility and crystallinity of the final product can be improved. With prolonging the reflux time from 6 to 14 h, the rutile TiO2 nanorod with uniform crystal size and high crystallinity is obtained. The growth mechanism of TiO2 nanorod and nanodisk prepared under different conditions was also discussed.