Controlled biocide release from hierarchically-structured biogenic silica: surface chemistry to tune release rate and responsiveness

Bruno D. Mattos, Blaise L. Tardy, Mohammadi Pezhman, Tero Kämäräinen, Markus Linder, Wido H. Schreiner, Washington L. E. Magalhães, Orlando J. Rojas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Biocides are essential for crop protection, packaging and several other biosystem applications. Therein, properties such as tailored and controlled release are paramount in the development of sustainable biocide delivery systems. We explore the self-similar nano-organized architecture of biogenic silica particles to achieve high biocide payload. The high surface area accessibility of the carrier allowed us to develop an efficient, low energy loading strategy, reaching significant dynamic loadings of up to 100 mg·g -1. The release rate and responsiveness were tuned by manipulating the interfaces, using either the native hydroxyl surfaces of the carrier or systems modified with amines or carboxylic acids in high density. We thoroughly evaluated the impact of the carrier-biocide interactions on the release rate as a function of pH, ionic strength and temperature. The amine and carboxyl functionalization strategy led to three-fold decrease in the release rate, while higher responsiveness against important agro-industrial variables. Key to our discoveries, nanostructuring thymol in the biogenic silica endowed systems with controlled, responsive release promoting remarkable, high and localized biocidal activity. The interfacial factors affecting related delivery were elucidated for an increased and localized biocidal activity, bringing a new light for the development of controlled release systems from porous materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5555
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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