Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis

J Ruusunen (Corresponding Author), M Ihalainen, T Koponen, T Torvela, M Tenho, J Salonen, O Sippula, J Joutsensaari, Jorma Jokiniemi, A Lähde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80-90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 % and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 %, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 %, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process
Original languageEnglish
Article number2270
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Oxidation
Iron
Nanoparticles
Hematite
Ferrosoferric Oxide
Magnetite
Vapors
Synthesis
vapors
Oxygen
Atmospheric pressure
iron
hematite
nanoparticles
oxidation
magnetite
synthesis
atmospheric pressure
Iron oxides
oxygen

Keywords

  • Aerosols
  • chemical vapour synthesis
  • iron
  • iron oxide
  • magnetic
  • nanoparticles

Cite this

Ruusunen, J., Ihalainen, M., Koponen, T., Torvela, T., Tenho, M., Salonen, J., ... Lähde, A. (2014). Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 16(2), [2270]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-014-2270-0
Ruusunen, J ; Ihalainen, M ; Koponen, T ; Torvela, T ; Tenho, M ; Salonen, J ; Sippula, O ; Joutsensaari, J ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Lähde, A. / Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis. In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2014 ; Vol. 16, No. 2.
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title = "Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis",
abstract = "In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80-90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 {\%} and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 {\%}, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 {\%}, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process",
keywords = "Aerosols, chemical vapour synthesis, iron, iron oxide, magnetic, nanoparticles",
author = "J Ruusunen and M Ihalainen and T Koponen and T Torvela and M Tenho and J Salonen and O Sippula and J Joutsensaari and Jorma Jokiniemi and A L{\"a}hde",
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Ruusunen, J, Ihalainen, M, Koponen, T, Torvela, T, Tenho, M, Salonen, J, Sippula, O, Joutsensaari, J, Jokiniemi, J & Lähde, A 2014, 'Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis', Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 16, no. 2, 2270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-014-2270-0

Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis. / Ruusunen, J (Corresponding Author); Ihalainen, M; Koponen, T; Torvela, T; Tenho, M; Salonen, J; Sippula, O; Joutsensaari, J; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Lähde, A.

In: Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2270, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Controlled oxidation of iron nanoparticles in chemical vapour synthesis

AU - Ruusunen, J

AU - Ihalainen, M

AU - Koponen, T

AU - Torvela, T

AU - Tenho, M

AU - Salonen, J

AU - Sippula, O

AU - Joutsensaari, J

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Lähde, A

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80-90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 % and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 %, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 %, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process

AB - In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles (primary particle size of 80-90 nm) with controlled oxidation state were prepared via an atmospheric pressure chemical vapour synthesis (APCVS) method. Iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO)5], a precursor material, was thermally decomposed to iron in the APCVS reactor. Subsequently, the iron was oxidized with controlled amount of oxygen in the reactor to produce nearly pure magnetite or haematite particles depending on the oxygen concentration. Size, morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and computational fluid dynamics model were used to predict the oxidation state of the iron oxides and the reaction conditions during mixing. Aggregates of crystalline particles were formed, determined as magnetite at the oxygen volumetric fraction of 0.1 % and haematite at volumetric fraction of 0.5 %, according to the XRD. The geometric mean electrical mobility diameter of the aggregates increased from 110 to 155 nm when the volumetric fraction of oxygen increased from 0.1 to 0.5 %, determined using the SMPS. The aggregates were highly sintered based on TEM analyses. As a conclusion, APCVS method can be used to produce nearly pure crystalline magnetite or haematite nanoparticles with controlled oxidation in a continuous one-stage gas-phase process

KW - Aerosols

KW - chemical vapour synthesis

KW - iron

KW - iron oxide

KW - magnetic

KW - nanoparticles

U2 - 10.1007/s11051-014-2270-0

DO - 10.1007/s11051-014-2270-0

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - Journal of Nanoparticle Research

JF - Journal of Nanoparticle Research

SN - 1388-0764

IS - 2

M1 - 2270

ER -