The goal of quantitatively predicting air gap growth in casting processes is still not reached. Subgroup IV of the international research platform MEBSP is tackling the problem with both an experimental approach (see Figure for a layout currently used at the Royal Institute of Technology) and a variety of simulation programs, being used by different participating institutes.
Kron, J., Bellet, M., Ludwig, A., Wendt, J., Pustal, B., & Fredriksson, H. (2003). Cooperation within MEBSP on the subject of air gap formation during a casting process. Advanced Engineering Materials, 5(1-2), 78-79. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.200390012