Previous studies show that children who later progress to type 1 diabetes (T1D) have decreased preautoimmune concentrations of multiple phospholipids as compared with nonprogressors. It is still unclear whether these changes associate with development of β-cell autoimmunity or specifically with clinical T1D. Here, we studied umbilical cord serum lipidome in infants who later developed T1D (N = 33); infants who developed three or four (N = 31) islet autoantibodies, two (N = 31) islet autoantibodies, or one (N = 48) islet autoantibody during the follow-up; and controls (N = 143) matched for sex, HLA-DQB1 genotype, city of birth, and period of birth. The analyses of serum molecular lipids were performed using the established lipidomics platform based on ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. We found that T1D progressors are characterized by a distinct cord blood lipidomic profile that includes reduced major cholinecontaining phospholipids, including sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. A molecular signature was developed comprising seven lipids that predicted high risk for progression to T1D with an odds ratio of 5.94 (95% CI, 1.0717.50). Reduction in cholinecontaining phospholipids in cord blood therefore is specifically associated with progression to T1D but not with development of β-cell autoimmunity in general.