The Gulf of Bothnia has the potential for large capacity wind farms because of the relatively high and constant wind velocities. The mostly shallow coastal areas enable cost-efficient foundation and grid connection. However, the sea freezes annually introducing the most significant uncertainties in the support structure design for offshore wind turbines. The magnitude and time variation of sea ice load depends on various factors, like the thickness and velocity of the ice as well as the size and shape of the structure. A feasibility study of the FAST (fatigue, aerodynamics, structures and turbulence) simulation software was carried out investigating the structural performance of offshore wind turbines. Various load combinations and operation modes were studied by taking into account coupling between the ice, wind and structural response. Coupled modelling of ice-structure interaction is a necessary step in terms of cost-efficient structural design.
- ice-induced vibration
- sea ice load