Crack Initiation Mechanism in Non-ductile Cracking of Irradiated 304L Stainless Steels under BWR Water Environment

Takeo Onchi, Kenji Hohi, Marta Navas, Wade Karlsen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The deformation behavior and initiation mechanisms of intergranular (IG) and transgranular (TG) cracks in irradiated 304L stainless steel were studied by slow-strain-rate tensile tests in inert gas and simulated BWR water environments, followed by fractographic and microstructural examinations. Neutron irradiation was made in test reactors to fluences of up to 6.2x1020 n/cm2 (E>1 MeV). Intergranular cracking occurred in water above a critical neutron fluence of around 1 × 1020 n/cm2, based on the results of the SSRT tests and SEM fractography. That critical fluence is mechanistically supported by irradiated, deformed microstructures exhibiting dislocation channeling at that fluence, while radiation-induced Cr depletion at the grain boundaries was minor. Transgranular cracking of the irradiated material occurred in water below the critical fluence, initiating in the non-uniformly strained surface region of the test bar in the later stages of plastic deformation. The initiation of TG cracking is hypothesized to be related to a high density of deformation twins. Intergranular cracking is proposed to have initiated where localized slip bands terminated at grain boundaries, while TG cracking is inferred to have initiated at deformation twin boundaries. High stress and strain concentrations at grain/twin boundaries would be the common cause of non-ductile crack initiation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)851-865
    Number of pages5
    JournalJournal of Nuclear Science and Technology
    Volume43
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    crack initiation
    Crack initiation
    stainless steels
    fluence
    Grain boundaries
    Stainless steel
    water
    Water
    Fractography
    Neutron irradiation
    Inert gases
    grain boundaries
    Strain rate
    Plastic deformation
    fractography
    Neutrons
    stress concentration
    Cracks
    edge dislocations
    neutron irradiation

    Keywords

    • 304L stainless steel
    • neutron irradiation
    • intergranular cracking
    • transgranular cracking
    • plastic deformation localization
    • dislocation channeling
    • deformation twins
    • grain boundary
    • twin boundary
    • stress and strain concentration

    Cite this

    @article{43251b72b415464c919f3bfc37cf90a0,
    title = "Crack Initiation Mechanism in Non-ductile Cracking of Irradiated 304L Stainless Steels under BWR Water Environment",
    abstract = "The deformation behavior and initiation mechanisms of intergranular (IG) and transgranular (TG) cracks in irradiated 304L stainless steel were studied by slow-strain-rate tensile tests in inert gas and simulated BWR water environments, followed by fractographic and microstructural examinations. Neutron irradiation was made in test reactors to fluences of up to 6.2x1020 n/cm2 (E>1 MeV). Intergranular cracking occurred in water above a critical neutron fluence of around 1 × 1020 n/cm2, based on the results of the SSRT tests and SEM fractography. That critical fluence is mechanistically supported by irradiated, deformed microstructures exhibiting dislocation channeling at that fluence, while radiation-induced Cr depletion at the grain boundaries was minor. Transgranular cracking of the irradiated material occurred in water below the critical fluence, initiating in the non-uniformly strained surface region of the test bar in the later stages of plastic deformation. The initiation of TG cracking is hypothesized to be related to a high density of deformation twins. Intergranular cracking is proposed to have initiated where localized slip bands terminated at grain boundaries, while TG cracking is inferred to have initiated at deformation twin boundaries. High stress and strain concentrations at grain/twin boundaries would be the common cause of non-ductile crack initiation.",
    keywords = "304L stainless steel, neutron irradiation, intergranular cracking, transgranular cracking, plastic deformation localization, dislocation channeling, deformation twins, grain boundary, twin boundary, stress and strain concentration",
    author = "Takeo Onchi and Kenji Hohi and Marta Navas and Wade Karlsen",
    year = "2006",
    doi = "10.1080/18811248.2006.9711170",
    language = "English",
    volume = "43",
    pages = "851--865",
    journal = "Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology",
    issn = "0022-3131",
    publisher = "Atomic Energy Society of Japan",
    number = "8",

    }

    Crack Initiation Mechanism in Non-ductile Cracking of Irradiated 304L Stainless Steels under BWR Water Environment. / Onchi, Takeo; Hohi, Kenji; Navas, Marta; Karlsen, Wade.

    In: Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 8, 2006, p. 851-865.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Crack Initiation Mechanism in Non-ductile Cracking of Irradiated 304L Stainless Steels under BWR Water Environment

    AU - Onchi, Takeo

    AU - Hohi, Kenji

    AU - Navas, Marta

    AU - Karlsen, Wade

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - The deformation behavior and initiation mechanisms of intergranular (IG) and transgranular (TG) cracks in irradiated 304L stainless steel were studied by slow-strain-rate tensile tests in inert gas and simulated BWR water environments, followed by fractographic and microstructural examinations. Neutron irradiation was made in test reactors to fluences of up to 6.2x1020 n/cm2 (E>1 MeV). Intergranular cracking occurred in water above a critical neutron fluence of around 1 × 1020 n/cm2, based on the results of the SSRT tests and SEM fractography. That critical fluence is mechanistically supported by irradiated, deformed microstructures exhibiting dislocation channeling at that fluence, while radiation-induced Cr depletion at the grain boundaries was minor. Transgranular cracking of the irradiated material occurred in water below the critical fluence, initiating in the non-uniformly strained surface region of the test bar in the later stages of plastic deformation. The initiation of TG cracking is hypothesized to be related to a high density of deformation twins. Intergranular cracking is proposed to have initiated where localized slip bands terminated at grain boundaries, while TG cracking is inferred to have initiated at deformation twin boundaries. High stress and strain concentrations at grain/twin boundaries would be the common cause of non-ductile crack initiation.

    AB - The deformation behavior and initiation mechanisms of intergranular (IG) and transgranular (TG) cracks in irradiated 304L stainless steel were studied by slow-strain-rate tensile tests in inert gas and simulated BWR water environments, followed by fractographic and microstructural examinations. Neutron irradiation was made in test reactors to fluences of up to 6.2x1020 n/cm2 (E>1 MeV). Intergranular cracking occurred in water above a critical neutron fluence of around 1 × 1020 n/cm2, based on the results of the SSRT tests and SEM fractography. That critical fluence is mechanistically supported by irradiated, deformed microstructures exhibiting dislocation channeling at that fluence, while radiation-induced Cr depletion at the grain boundaries was minor. Transgranular cracking of the irradiated material occurred in water below the critical fluence, initiating in the non-uniformly strained surface region of the test bar in the later stages of plastic deformation. The initiation of TG cracking is hypothesized to be related to a high density of deformation twins. Intergranular cracking is proposed to have initiated where localized slip bands terminated at grain boundaries, while TG cracking is inferred to have initiated at deformation twin boundaries. High stress and strain concentrations at grain/twin boundaries would be the common cause of non-ductile crack initiation.

    KW - 304L stainless steel

    KW - neutron irradiation

    KW - intergranular cracking

    KW - transgranular cracking

    KW - plastic deformation localization

    KW - dislocation channeling

    KW - deformation twins

    KW - grain boundary

    KW - twin boundary

    KW - stress and strain concentration

    U2 - 10.1080/18811248.2006.9711170

    DO - 10.1080/18811248.2006.9711170

    M3 - Article

    VL - 43

    SP - 851

    EP - 865

    JO - Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology

    JF - Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology

    SN - 0022-3131

    IS - 8

    ER -