Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone

Heidi K. Hyytiäinen, Balamuralikrishna Jayaprakash, Pirkka V. Kirjavainen, Sampo E. Saari, Rauno Holopainen, Jorma Keskinen, Kaarle Hämeri, Anne Hyvärinen, Brandon E. Boor, Martin Täubel

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: Floor dust is commonly used for microbial determinations in epidemiological studies to estimate early-life indoor microbial exposures. Resuspension of floor dust and its impact on infant microbial exposure is, however, little explored. The aim of our study was to investigate how floor dust resuspension induced by an infant's crawling motion and an adult walking affects infant inhalation exposure to microbes. Results: We conducted controlled chamber experiments with a simplified mechanical crawling infant robot and an adult volunteer walking over carpeted flooring. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR to monitor the infant breathing zone microbial content and compared that to the adult breathing zone and the carpet dust as the source. During crawling, fungal and bacterial levels were, on average, 8-to 21-fold higher in the infant breathing zone compared to measurements from the adult breathing zone. During walking experiments, the increase in microbial levels in the infant breathing zone was far less pronounced. The correlation in rank orders of microbial levels in the carpet dust and the corresponding infant breathing zone sample varied between different microbial groups but was mostly moderate. The relative abundance of bacterial taxa was characteristically distinct in carpet dust and infant and adult breathing zones during the infant crawling experiments. Bacterial diversity in carpet dust and the infant breathing zone did not correlate significantly. Conclusions: The microbiota in the infant breathing zone differ in absolute quantitative and compositional terms from that of the adult breathing zone and of floor dust. Crawling induces resuspension of floor dust from carpeted flooring, creating a concentrated and localized cloud of microbial content around the infant. Thus, the microbial exposure of infants following dust resuspension is difficult to predict based on common house dust or bulk air measurements. Improved approaches for the assessment of infant microbial exposure, such as sampling at the infant breathing zone level, are needed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number25
    JournalMicrobiome
    Volume6
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Microbiota
    Dust
    Respiration
    Walking
    Inhalation Exposure
    rRNA Genes

    Keywords

    • 16S rRNA gene sequencing
    • Indoor microbial exposure
    • Infant exposure
    • Particle resuspension
    • QPCR

    Cite this

    Hyytiäinen, H. K., Jayaprakash, B., Kirjavainen, P. V., Saari, S. E., Holopainen, R., Keskinen, J., ... Täubel, M. (2018). Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone. Microbiome, 6(1), [25]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0405-8
    Hyytiäinen, Heidi K. ; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna ; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V. ; Saari, Sampo E. ; Holopainen, Rauno ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Hämeri, Kaarle ; Hyvärinen, Anne ; Boor, Brandon E. ; Täubel, Martin. / Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone. In: Microbiome. 2018 ; Vol. 6, No. 1.
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    title = "Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone",
    abstract = "Background: Floor dust is commonly used for microbial determinations in epidemiological studies to estimate early-life indoor microbial exposures. Resuspension of floor dust and its impact on infant microbial exposure is, however, little explored. The aim of our study was to investigate how floor dust resuspension induced by an infant's crawling motion and an adult walking affects infant inhalation exposure to microbes. Results: We conducted controlled chamber experiments with a simplified mechanical crawling infant robot and an adult volunteer walking over carpeted flooring. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR to monitor the infant breathing zone microbial content and compared that to the adult breathing zone and the carpet dust as the source. During crawling, fungal and bacterial levels were, on average, 8-to 21-fold higher in the infant breathing zone compared to measurements from the adult breathing zone. During walking experiments, the increase in microbial levels in the infant breathing zone was far less pronounced. The correlation in rank orders of microbial levels in the carpet dust and the corresponding infant breathing zone sample varied between different microbial groups but was mostly moderate. The relative abundance of bacterial taxa was characteristically distinct in carpet dust and infant and adult breathing zones during the infant crawling experiments. Bacterial diversity in carpet dust and the infant breathing zone did not correlate significantly. Conclusions: The microbiota in the infant breathing zone differ in absolute quantitative and compositional terms from that of the adult breathing zone and of floor dust. Crawling induces resuspension of floor dust from carpeted flooring, creating a concentrated and localized cloud of microbial content around the infant. Thus, the microbial exposure of infants following dust resuspension is difficult to predict based on common house dust or bulk air measurements. Improved approaches for the assessment of infant microbial exposure, such as sampling at the infant breathing zone level, are needed.",
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    Hyytiäinen, HK, Jayaprakash, B, Kirjavainen, PV, Saari, SE, Holopainen, R, Keskinen, J, Hämeri, K, Hyvärinen, A, Boor, BE & Täubel, M 2018, 'Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone', Microbiome, vol. 6, no. 1, 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0405-8

    Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone. / Hyytiäinen, Heidi K.; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Saari, Sampo E.; Holopainen, Rauno; Keskinen, Jorma; Hämeri, Kaarle; Hyvärinen, Anne; Boor, Brandon E.; Täubel, Martin.

    In: Microbiome, Vol. 6, No. 1, 25, 01.01.2018.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    T1 - Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone

    AU - Hyytiäinen, Heidi K.

    AU - Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna

    AU - Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.

    AU - Saari, Sampo E.

    AU - Holopainen, Rauno

    AU - Keskinen, Jorma

    AU - Hämeri, Kaarle

    AU - Hyvärinen, Anne

    AU - Boor, Brandon E.

    AU - Täubel, Martin

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    N2 - Background: Floor dust is commonly used for microbial determinations in epidemiological studies to estimate early-life indoor microbial exposures. Resuspension of floor dust and its impact on infant microbial exposure is, however, little explored. The aim of our study was to investigate how floor dust resuspension induced by an infant's crawling motion and an adult walking affects infant inhalation exposure to microbes. Results: We conducted controlled chamber experiments with a simplified mechanical crawling infant robot and an adult volunteer walking over carpeted flooring. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR to monitor the infant breathing zone microbial content and compared that to the adult breathing zone and the carpet dust as the source. During crawling, fungal and bacterial levels were, on average, 8-to 21-fold higher in the infant breathing zone compared to measurements from the adult breathing zone. During walking experiments, the increase in microbial levels in the infant breathing zone was far less pronounced. The correlation in rank orders of microbial levels in the carpet dust and the corresponding infant breathing zone sample varied between different microbial groups but was mostly moderate. The relative abundance of bacterial taxa was characteristically distinct in carpet dust and infant and adult breathing zones during the infant crawling experiments. Bacterial diversity in carpet dust and the infant breathing zone did not correlate significantly. Conclusions: The microbiota in the infant breathing zone differ in absolute quantitative and compositional terms from that of the adult breathing zone and of floor dust. Crawling induces resuspension of floor dust from carpeted flooring, creating a concentrated and localized cloud of microbial content around the infant. Thus, the microbial exposure of infants following dust resuspension is difficult to predict based on common house dust or bulk air measurements. Improved approaches for the assessment of infant microbial exposure, such as sampling at the infant breathing zone level, are needed.

    AB - Background: Floor dust is commonly used for microbial determinations in epidemiological studies to estimate early-life indoor microbial exposures. Resuspension of floor dust and its impact on infant microbial exposure is, however, little explored. The aim of our study was to investigate how floor dust resuspension induced by an infant's crawling motion and an adult walking affects infant inhalation exposure to microbes. Results: We conducted controlled chamber experiments with a simplified mechanical crawling infant robot and an adult volunteer walking over carpeted flooring. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR to monitor the infant breathing zone microbial content and compared that to the adult breathing zone and the carpet dust as the source. During crawling, fungal and bacterial levels were, on average, 8-to 21-fold higher in the infant breathing zone compared to measurements from the adult breathing zone. During walking experiments, the increase in microbial levels in the infant breathing zone was far less pronounced. The correlation in rank orders of microbial levels in the carpet dust and the corresponding infant breathing zone sample varied between different microbial groups but was mostly moderate. The relative abundance of bacterial taxa was characteristically distinct in carpet dust and infant and adult breathing zones during the infant crawling experiments. Bacterial diversity in carpet dust and the infant breathing zone did not correlate significantly. Conclusions: The microbiota in the infant breathing zone differ in absolute quantitative and compositional terms from that of the adult breathing zone and of floor dust. Crawling induces resuspension of floor dust from carpeted flooring, creating a concentrated and localized cloud of microbial content around the infant. Thus, the microbial exposure of infants following dust resuspension is difficult to predict based on common house dust or bulk air measurements. Improved approaches for the assessment of infant microbial exposure, such as sampling at the infant breathing zone level, are needed.

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    Hyytiäinen HK, Jayaprakash B, Kirjavainen PV, Saari SE, Holopainen R, Keskinen J et al. Crawling-induced floor dust resuspension affects the microbiota of the infant breathing zone. Microbiome. 2018 Jan 1;6(1). 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0405-8