Monte Carlo ion simulation of the tokamak edge, based on the neoclassical radial current balance, shows that a considerable E×B shear, relevant for turbulence suppression, can be generated by orbit losses. In contrast to earlier orbit loss models, no spontaneous bifurcation of the radial electric field Er is found. However, a bifurcation and a solitary Er generation are found in simulations with electrode polarization.
Kiviniemi, T., Heikkinen, J., Peeters, A., Kurki-Suonio, T., & Sipilä, S. (2000). Critical assessment of ion loss mechanisms for L-H transition. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 42(Supplement 5A), A185-A190. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/42/5A/320