Critical metals in end-of-life products: recovery potential and opportunities for removal of bottlenecks of recycling

Henna Punkkinen, Ulla-Maija Mroueh, Margareta Wahlström, Lena Youhanan, Åsa Stenmarck

Research output: Book/ReportReport


Critical raw materials (CRM) are used in various applications in different sectors, and their consumption will likely further increase in future. The threats caused by their limited availability and high prices have led to discussion on more efficient use of the resources available. The enhanced recycling of critical raw materials could be a significant opportunity for the Nordic countries.This report focuses on the recycling potential of wastes containing CRMs, analyses of the bottlenecks of recycling, and identifies potential policy instruments to eliminate the barriers or reduce their impact. In order to enhance sustainable recycling, the Nordic countries should improve knowledge of CRM availability, develop new recycling strategies, support demonstration and selected R&D actions, and strengthen Nordic influence on the development of European legislation and standards.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationCopenhagen
PublisherNordic Council of Ministers
Number of pages104
ISBN (Print)978-92-893-4988-8, 978-92-893-4989-5, 978-92-893-4990-1
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series




  • environment
  • chemicals
  • climate
  • sustainable development
  • green growth
  • Baltic Sea Region
  • European Union

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