Critical Review on Sustainability in Denim: A Step toward Sustainable Production and Consumption of Denim

Aravin Prince Periyasamy (Corresponding Author), Saravanan Periyasami

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The exponential development in knowledge on the health and environmental concerns linked to conventional denim processing is directly responsible for the continuous increase in demand for the exploitation of sustainable denim. Research is essential to explore alternative methods to reduce the environmental impact caused by these industries. This review examines the many sustainable ways to produce denim, keeping in mind the problems that the denim industry is now facing in finding alternatives to conventional manufacturing practices. The most current advancements in environmentally friendly dyeing techniques for denim have been extensively discussed. These processes include the production of indigo from bacteria as well as different dyeing processes, such as digital spray, microbially assisted dyeing, and foam dyeing denim with indigo. In addition, this review covers the many environmentally friendly finishing methods for denim garments, such as ozone fading, e-flow, enzyme-based bleaching, water, laser fading, and so on. Finally, it is described how the chemical and mechanical processes used to finish denim might affect the amount of microplastics and microfibers released from the denim garment during domestic washing. As a result, the content presented in this review aims to address the importance of sustainable denim processing, that is, something that can be rethought, reevaluated, renewed, and restructured within the scope of conventional denim processes, while taking eco-responsible solutions for increased environmental sustainability into account.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4472-4490
Number of pages19
JournalACS Omega
Issue number5
Early online date13 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2023
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


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