Cross-testing laser powder bed fusion production machines and powders: Variability in mechanical properties of heat-treated 316L stainless steel

Joni Reijonen (Corresponding Author), Roy Björkstrand, Tuomas Riipinen, Zaiqing Que, Sini Metsä-Kortelainen, Mika Salmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is used for demanding applications in industries such as aerospace. However, machine-specific, optimized process conditions and parameters are required to assure consistent part quality. In addition, differences in supplied powder can cause variation in the mechanical properties of the final parts. In this paper, the variability in mechanical properties of 316Lstainless steel produced with two different laser powder bed fusion machines from two different powder batches was studied by producing an identical set of tensile and impact toughness test specimens. The samples were subjected to stress-relieving, solution annealing and hot isostatic pressing to assess the effectiveness of standardized heat-treatments in reducing variation in the mechanical properties of the built parts. Porosity, microstructure, tensile properties, and impact toughness of the specimens were measured to study the effect of changing the material, machine, and heat treatment. The maximum differences observed between the studied machine-powder combinations were approximately 7% for tensile properties and approximately 20% for impact toughness. HIP reduced the variability in all other studied properties except elongation. All the specimens fulfil the minimum requirements set in ASTM F3184-16 for AM 316L.
Original languageEnglish
Article number109684
Number of pages13
JournalMaterials and Design
Volume204
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • heat treatment
  • laser powder bed fusion
  • mechanical properties
  • stainless steel
  • variability

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cross-testing laser powder bed fusion production machines and powders: Variability in mechanical properties of heat-treated 316L stainless steel'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this