Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals

Kristiina R. Juvonen (Corresponding Author), Martina Lille, David E. Laaksonen, Hannu M. Mykkänen, Leo K. Niskanen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Kaisa Poutanen, Leila J. Karhunen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)



    Postprandial metabolic and appetitive responses of proteins are dependent on protein source and processing technique prior to ingestion. Studies on the postprandial effects of enzymatic crosslinking of milk proteins are sparse. Our aim was to study the effect of transglutaminase (TG)-induced crosslinking of sodium caseinate on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. Whey protein was included as reference protein.


    Thirteen healthy individuals (23.3 ± 1.1 y, BMI 21.7 ± 0.4 kg/m2) participated in a single-blind crossover design experiment in which the subjects consumed three different isovolumic (500 g) pourable beverages containing either sodium caseinate (Cas, 29 g), TG-treated sodium caseinate (Cas-TG, 29 g) or whey protein (Wh, 30 g) in a randomized order. Blood samples were collected at baseline and for 4 h postprandially for the determination of plasma glucose, insulin and amino acid (AA) concentrations. Gastric emptying (GE) was measured using the 13 C-breath test method. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales.


    All examined postprandial responses were comparable with Cas and Cas-TG. The protein type used in the beverages was reflected as differences in plasma AA concentrations between Wh and Cas, but there were no differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses. A tendency for faster GE rate after Wh was detected. Appetite ratings or subsequent energy intake did not differ among the protein beverages.


    Our results indicate that the metabolic responses of enzymatically crosslinked and native sodium caseinate in a liquid matrix are comparable, suggesting similar digestion and absorption rates and first pass metabolism despite the structural modification of Cas-TG.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number35
    Number of pages12
    JournalNutrition Journal
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Amino acids
    • appetite
    • caseinate
    • crosslinking
    • glucoce
    • insulin
    • postprandial
    • whey protein


    Dive into the research topics of 'Crosslinking with transglutaminase does not change metabolic effects of sodium caseinate in model beverage in healthy young individuals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this