Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films

Minna Hakalahti, Arto Salminen, Jukka Seppälä, Tekla Tammelin, Tuomas Hänninen

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference articleScientific

    Abstract

    Hygroscopic nature of cellulose is one of the most difficult limiting factors to overcome in utilization of nanocellulose. When unmodified nanocellulose structure is subjected to humidity or immersed in water it loses its structural integrity very quickly. Nanoscaled cellulose fibrils form very tightly packed films, which can be used, for example, as excellent barriers or membranes. Water stability of nanocellulose films has been improved by preparation of multilayered structures, reduction of free volume, surface modification and additives. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can be used to significantly enhance water stability of films prepared from TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs). In water swollen TOCN films, PVA has two functions; it can either improve the wet strength by forming interfibrillar bridges or act as a plasticizer. The interfibrillar bridging is result of two mechanisms (Fig. 1): 1) hemiacetal bonding between PVA hydroxyls and aldehydes in TOCNs and 2) acid catalysed formation of ester bonds between PVA hydroxyls and carboxylic groups in TOCNs. Sufficient bonding between TOCNs to achieve water stability could not be observed. Mechanical properties of the films can be tuned without losing the water stability merely by changing the amount of PVA. Even after being immersed in water for several months, TOCN/PVA films maintain their structural integrity. The water stability increases to such extent that TOCN/PVA films can be used as water filtration membranes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    EventInternational Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015 - Tokyo, Japan
    Duration: 15 Mar 201517 Mar 2015

    Conference

    ConferenceInternational Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015
    Abbreviated titleIAWPS
    CountryJapan
    CityTokyo
    Period15/03/1517/03/15

    Fingerprint

    oxidized cellulose
    Cellulose films
    Polyvinyl Alcohol
    Water
    Structural integrity
    Cellulose
    Hydroxyl Radical
    Water filtration
    Membranes
    Plasticizers
    TEMPO
    Free volume
    Aldehydes
    Surface treatment
    Atmospheric humidity
    Esters
    Mechanical properties

    Cite this

    Hakalahti, M., Salminen, A., Seppälä, J., Tammelin, T., & Hänninen, T. (2015). Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films. Paper presented at International Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015, Tokyo, Japan.
    Hakalahti, Minna ; Salminen, Arto ; Seppälä, Jukka ; Tammelin, Tekla ; Hänninen, Tuomas. / Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films. Paper presented at International Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015, Tokyo, Japan.
    @conference{8163091b1f5b4d8289ec27c2743ff064,
    title = "Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films",
    abstract = "Hygroscopic nature of cellulose is one of the most difficult limiting factors to overcome in utilization of nanocellulose. When unmodified nanocellulose structure is subjected to humidity or immersed in water it loses its structural integrity very quickly. Nanoscaled cellulose fibrils form very tightly packed films, which can be used, for example, as excellent barriers or membranes. Water stability of nanocellulose films has been improved by preparation of multilayered structures, reduction of free volume, surface modification and additives. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can be used to significantly enhance water stability of films prepared from TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs). In water swollen TOCN films, PVA has two functions; it can either improve the wet strength by forming interfibrillar bridges or act as a plasticizer. The interfibrillar bridging is result of two mechanisms (Fig. 1): 1) hemiacetal bonding between PVA hydroxyls and aldehydes in TOCNs and 2) acid catalysed formation of ester bonds between PVA hydroxyls and carboxylic groups in TOCNs. Sufficient bonding between TOCNs to achieve water stability could not be observed. Mechanical properties of the films can be tuned without losing the water stability merely by changing the amount of PVA. Even after being immersed in water for several months, TOCN/PVA films maintain their structural integrity. The water stability increases to such extent that TOCN/PVA films can be used as water filtration membranes.",
    author = "Minna Hakalahti and Arto Salminen and Jukka Sepp{\"a}l{\"a} and Tekla Tammelin and Tuomas H{\"a}nninen",
    year = "2015",
    language = "English",
    note = "International Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015, IAWPS ; Conference date: 15-03-2015 Through 17-03-2015",

    }

    Hakalahti, M, Salminen, A, Seppälä, J, Tammelin, T & Hänninen, T 2015, 'Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films', Paper presented at International Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015, Tokyo, Japan, 15/03/15 - 17/03/15.

    Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films. / Hakalahti, Minna; Salminen, Arto; Seppälä, Jukka; Tammelin, Tekla; Hänninen, Tuomas.

    2015. Paper presented at International Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015, Tokyo, Japan.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceConference articleScientific

    TY - CONF

    T1 - Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films

    AU - Hakalahti, Minna

    AU - Salminen, Arto

    AU - Seppälä, Jukka

    AU - Tammelin, Tekla

    AU - Hänninen, Tuomas

    PY - 2015

    Y1 - 2015

    N2 - Hygroscopic nature of cellulose is one of the most difficult limiting factors to overcome in utilization of nanocellulose. When unmodified nanocellulose structure is subjected to humidity or immersed in water it loses its structural integrity very quickly. Nanoscaled cellulose fibrils form very tightly packed films, which can be used, for example, as excellent barriers or membranes. Water stability of nanocellulose films has been improved by preparation of multilayered structures, reduction of free volume, surface modification and additives. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can be used to significantly enhance water stability of films prepared from TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs). In water swollen TOCN films, PVA has two functions; it can either improve the wet strength by forming interfibrillar bridges or act as a plasticizer. The interfibrillar bridging is result of two mechanisms (Fig. 1): 1) hemiacetal bonding between PVA hydroxyls and aldehydes in TOCNs and 2) acid catalysed formation of ester bonds between PVA hydroxyls and carboxylic groups in TOCNs. Sufficient bonding between TOCNs to achieve water stability could not be observed. Mechanical properties of the films can be tuned without losing the water stability merely by changing the amount of PVA. Even after being immersed in water for several months, TOCN/PVA films maintain their structural integrity. The water stability increases to such extent that TOCN/PVA films can be used as water filtration membranes.

    AB - Hygroscopic nature of cellulose is one of the most difficult limiting factors to overcome in utilization of nanocellulose. When unmodified nanocellulose structure is subjected to humidity or immersed in water it loses its structural integrity very quickly. Nanoscaled cellulose fibrils form very tightly packed films, which can be used, for example, as excellent barriers or membranes. Water stability of nanocellulose films has been improved by preparation of multilayered structures, reduction of free volume, surface modification and additives. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can be used to significantly enhance water stability of films prepared from TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs). In water swollen TOCN films, PVA has two functions; it can either improve the wet strength by forming interfibrillar bridges or act as a plasticizer. The interfibrillar bridging is result of two mechanisms (Fig. 1): 1) hemiacetal bonding between PVA hydroxyls and aldehydes in TOCNs and 2) acid catalysed formation of ester bonds between PVA hydroxyls and carboxylic groups in TOCNs. Sufficient bonding between TOCNs to achieve water stability could not be observed. Mechanical properties of the films can be tuned without losing the water stability merely by changing the amount of PVA. Even after being immersed in water for several months, TOCN/PVA films maintain their structural integrity. The water stability increases to such extent that TOCN/PVA films can be used as water filtration membranes.

    M3 - Conference article

    ER -

    Hakalahti M, Salminen A, Seppälä J, Tammelin T, Hänninen T. Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films. 2015. Paper presented at International Symposium on Wood Science and Technology, IAWPS 2015, Tokyo, Japan.