Customizing the mechanical performance of water stable TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibril films

Minna Hakalahti, Arto Salminen, Jukka Seppälä, Tekla Tammelin, Tuomas A. Hanninen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific


    Hygroscopic nature of cellulose is one of the most difficult limiting factors to overcome in utilization of nanocellulose. When unmodified nanocellulose structure is subjected to humidity or immersed in water it loses its structural integrity very quickly. Nanoscaled cellulose fibrils form very tightly packed films, which can be used, for example, as excellent barriers or membranes. Water stability of nanocellulose films has been improved by prepn. of multilayered structures, redn. of free vol., surface modification and additives. Polyvinyl alc. (PVA) can be used to significantly enhance water stability of films prepd. from TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs). In water swollen TOCN films, PVA has two functions; it can either improve the wet strength by forming interfibrillar bridges or act as a plasticizer. The interfibrillar bridging is result of two mechanisms: 1) hemiacetal bonding between PVA hydroxyls and aldehydes in TOCNs and 2) acid catalyzed formation of ester bonds between PVA hydroxyls and carboxylic groups in TOCNs. Sufficient bonding between TOCNs to achieve water stability could not be obsd. Mech. properties of the films can be tuned without losing the water stability merely by changing the amt. of PVA. Even after being immersed in water for several months, TOCN/PVA films maintain their structural integrity. The water stability increases to such extent that TOCN/PVA films can be used as water filtration membranes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationAbstracts of papers
    PublisherAmerican Chemical Society ACS
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    Event249th ACS National Meeting and Exposition - Denver, United States
    Duration: 22 Mar 201526 Mar 2015


    Seminar249th ACS National Meeting and Exposition
    Country/TerritoryUnited States


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