Cyclic carbonates as building blocks for non-isocyanate polyurethanes

Soilikki Kotanen (Corresponding Author), Tom Wirtanen, Riitta Mahlberg, Adina Anghelescu-Hakala, Tapani Harjunalanen, Pia Willberg-Keyrilainen, Timo Laaksonen, Essi Sarlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Three different cyclic carbonates (ethylene, propylene, and butylene carbonate) that can be derived from CO2 were successfully polymerized with hexamethylenediamine to form non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) via self-polycondensation route without the use of harmful di-isocyanates. Three different catalysts were compared for their performance in self-polycondensation. Increasing the side chain length in cyclic carbonate increased the amount of urea side reaction and decreased the solubility of the final product. The increased amount of urea lead to a more thermoset behavior as the melting and decomposition took place simultaneously. Furthermore, the extent of urea side reaction and melting behavior were adjustable with the selection of the catalyst or polymerization parameters. With ethylene and propylene carbonate based precursors, it was possible to obtain promising melting temperatures and lap shear strength for the NIPUs when optimized polymerization parameters and catalyst were used.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere53964
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cyclic carbonate
  • non-isocyanate polyurethane
  • self-polycondensation
  • urea


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