Defect formation and annealing behavior of InP implanted by low-energy 15N ions

Esko Rauhala, T. Ahlgren, K. Väkeväinen, Jyrki Räisänen, J. Keinonen, K. Saarinen, T. Laine, Jari Likonen

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Abstract

Defect formation has been studied in nitrogen-implanted III-V compound semiconductor material InP. Sulphur-doped n-type (100) InP samples were implanted at room temperature with 30 keV 15N+ion doses of 10 power in14 - 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2. The implanted samples were subjected to isochronal vacuum annealing in the temperature range of 450-650 °C. The annealing behavior of nitrogen atom distributions, implantation-induced displacements of indium atoms, vacancy-type defects, and damage annealing were studied by nuclear resonance broadening, secondary ion mass spectrometry, ion backscattering and channeling, and slow positron annihilation techniques. Doses above 10 power in 15 N atoms cm-2 were found to produce amorphous layers extending from the surface to depths beyond the deposited energy distribution, up to 110 nm. The depth of an amorphous layer was observed to depend on the implantation dose. Temperature and dose-dependent epitaxial regrowth starting from the amorphous-crystalline interface was observed at 575 °C. The damage and vacancy concentration distributions were correlated with the implanted nitrogen distribution in the case of the highest implantation dose at 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2 ; disorder annealing and loss of nitrogen behave in a like manner with increasing temperature. For the lower doses, however, almost no redistribution or loss of nitrogen arose despite structural damage and vacancy annealing. Interpretation of the positron data allowed an identification of two types of vacancies. The type of the vacancy defects was found to depend on the implantation dose and annealing temperature; mono-vacancies were formed in the In sublattice at the low implantation doses, while the highest dose produced divacancies. The annealing tended to convert the mono-vacancies into divacancies, which were recovered at high temperatures depending on the implantation dose.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)738-746
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume83
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1998
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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dosage
annealing
defects
implantation
ions
energy
nitrogen
damage
atoms
temperature
positron annihilation
nitrogen atoms
sublattices
secondary ion mass spectrometry
indium
positrons
backscattering
energy distribution
sulfur
disorders

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Rauhala, E., Ahlgren, T., Väkeväinen, K., Räisänen, J., Keinonen, J., Saarinen, K., ... Likonen, J. (1998). Defect formation and annealing behavior of InP implanted by low-energy 15N ions. Journal of Applied Physics, 83(2), 738-746. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.366746
Rauhala, Esko ; Ahlgren, T. ; Väkeväinen, K. ; Räisänen, Jyrki ; Keinonen, J. ; Saarinen, K. ; Laine, T. ; Likonen, Jari. / Defect formation and annealing behavior of InP implanted by low-energy 15N ions. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 1998 ; Vol. 83, No. 2. pp. 738-746.
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abstract = "Defect formation has been studied in nitrogen-implanted III-V compound semiconductor material InP. Sulphur-doped n-type (100) InP samples were implanted at room temperature with 30 keV 15N+ion doses of 10 power in14 - 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2. The implanted samples were subjected to isochronal vacuum annealing in the temperature range of 450-650 °C. The annealing behavior of nitrogen atom distributions, implantation-induced displacements of indium atoms, vacancy-type defects, and damage annealing were studied by nuclear resonance broadening, secondary ion mass spectrometry, ion backscattering and channeling, and slow positron annihilation techniques. Doses above 10 power in 15 N atoms cm-2 were found to produce amorphous layers extending from the surface to depths beyond the deposited energy distribution, up to 110 nm. The depth of an amorphous layer was observed to depend on the implantation dose. Temperature and dose-dependent epitaxial regrowth starting from the amorphous-crystalline interface was observed at 575 °C. The damage and vacancy concentration distributions were correlated with the implanted nitrogen distribution in the case of the highest implantation dose at 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2 ; disorder annealing and loss of nitrogen behave in a like manner with increasing temperature. For the lower doses, however, almost no redistribution or loss of nitrogen arose despite structural damage and vacancy annealing. Interpretation of the positron data allowed an identification of two types of vacancies. The type of the vacancy defects was found to depend on the implantation dose and annealing temperature; mono-vacancies were formed in the In sublattice at the low implantation doses, while the highest dose produced divacancies. The annealing tended to convert the mono-vacancies into divacancies, which were recovered at high temperatures depending on the implantation dose.",
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Rauhala, E, Ahlgren, T, Väkeväinen, K, Räisänen, J, Keinonen, J, Saarinen, K, Laine, T & Likonen, J 1998, 'Defect formation and annealing behavior of InP implanted by low-energy 15N ions', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 738-746. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.366746

Defect formation and annealing behavior of InP implanted by low-energy 15N ions. / Rauhala, Esko; Ahlgren, T.; Väkeväinen, K.; Räisänen, Jyrki; Keinonen, J.; Saarinen, K.; Laine, T.; Likonen, Jari.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 83, No. 2, 1998, p. 738-746.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Defect formation and annealing behavior of InP implanted by low-energy 15N ions

AU - Rauhala, Esko

AU - Ahlgren, T.

AU - Väkeväinen, K.

AU - Räisänen, Jyrki

AU - Keinonen, J.

AU - Saarinen, K.

AU - Laine, T.

AU - Likonen, Jari

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N2 - Defect formation has been studied in nitrogen-implanted III-V compound semiconductor material InP. Sulphur-doped n-type (100) InP samples were implanted at room temperature with 30 keV 15N+ion doses of 10 power in14 - 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2. The implanted samples were subjected to isochronal vacuum annealing in the temperature range of 450-650 °C. The annealing behavior of nitrogen atom distributions, implantation-induced displacements of indium atoms, vacancy-type defects, and damage annealing were studied by nuclear resonance broadening, secondary ion mass spectrometry, ion backscattering and channeling, and slow positron annihilation techniques. Doses above 10 power in 15 N atoms cm-2 were found to produce amorphous layers extending from the surface to depths beyond the deposited energy distribution, up to 110 nm. The depth of an amorphous layer was observed to depend on the implantation dose. Temperature and dose-dependent epitaxial regrowth starting from the amorphous-crystalline interface was observed at 575 °C. The damage and vacancy concentration distributions were correlated with the implanted nitrogen distribution in the case of the highest implantation dose at 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2 ; disorder annealing and loss of nitrogen behave in a like manner with increasing temperature. For the lower doses, however, almost no redistribution or loss of nitrogen arose despite structural damage and vacancy annealing. Interpretation of the positron data allowed an identification of two types of vacancies. The type of the vacancy defects was found to depend on the implantation dose and annealing temperature; mono-vacancies were formed in the In sublattice at the low implantation doses, while the highest dose produced divacancies. The annealing tended to convert the mono-vacancies into divacancies, which were recovered at high temperatures depending on the implantation dose.

AB - Defect formation has been studied in nitrogen-implanted III-V compound semiconductor material InP. Sulphur-doped n-type (100) InP samples were implanted at room temperature with 30 keV 15N+ion doses of 10 power in14 - 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2. The implanted samples were subjected to isochronal vacuum annealing in the temperature range of 450-650 °C. The annealing behavior of nitrogen atom distributions, implantation-induced displacements of indium atoms, vacancy-type defects, and damage annealing were studied by nuclear resonance broadening, secondary ion mass spectrometry, ion backscattering and channeling, and slow positron annihilation techniques. Doses above 10 power in 15 N atoms cm-2 were found to produce amorphous layers extending from the surface to depths beyond the deposited energy distribution, up to 110 nm. The depth of an amorphous layer was observed to depend on the implantation dose. Temperature and dose-dependent epitaxial regrowth starting from the amorphous-crystalline interface was observed at 575 °C. The damage and vacancy concentration distributions were correlated with the implanted nitrogen distribution in the case of the highest implantation dose at 10 power in 16 N atoms cm-2 ; disorder annealing and loss of nitrogen behave in a like manner with increasing temperature. For the lower doses, however, almost no redistribution or loss of nitrogen arose despite structural damage and vacancy annealing. Interpretation of the positron data allowed an identification of two types of vacancies. The type of the vacancy defects was found to depend on the implantation dose and annealing temperature; mono-vacancies were formed in the In sublattice at the low implantation doses, while the highest dose produced divacancies. The annealing tended to convert the mono-vacancies into divacancies, which were recovered at high temperatures depending on the implantation dose.

U2 - 10.1063/1.366746

DO - 10.1063/1.366746

M3 - Article

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SP - 738

EP - 746

JO - Journal of Applied Physics

JF - Journal of Applied Physics

SN - 0021-8979

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Rauhala E, Ahlgren T, Väkeväinen K, Räisänen J, Keinonen J, Saarinen K et al. Defect formation and annealing behavior of InP implanted by low-energy 15N ions. Journal of Applied Physics. 1998;83(2):738-746. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.366746