Deformation and fracture of paper during the in-plane fracture toughness testing: Examination of the essential work of fracture method

Atsushi Tanaka, Tatsuo Yamauchi

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10 Citations (Scopus)


The “essential work of fracture” (EWF) method is applied to various machine-made papers. The deforming and fracturing processes of the paper samples during testing is analyzed by means of the thermographic observation. Plastic deformation zone appears in three ways when deep double edge notched tension specimens are strained under in-plane stress: i.e. 1. type (i)--appearing through whole the ligament in a vague manner and developing into a circular (or oval) zone even before or at the maximum load point; 2. type (ii)--appearing from notch tip and amalgamating into a circular (or oval) zone after the maximum load point; and 3. type (iii)--appearing from notch tip and not amalgamating into a circular (or oval) zone until the sheet failure. Specimens with small ligament length (L) are likely to belong to type (i), while those with large L to type (ii) & (iii). Among these three types, type (i) fulfills the original assumption of the EWF method best in terms of the complete ligament yielding before crack initiation. Thus the specific essential work of fracture determined using the linear relation of type (i) should be correct, although the estimated work is a little smaller than that from the linear relation of type (ii) & (iii).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1827-1833
JournalJournal of Materials Science
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2000
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • Fracture toughness
  • Ligament length
  • Plastic deformation zone
  • Essential work
  • Maximum load point

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