Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

T. Lähde (Corresponding Author), T. Rönkkö, A. Virtanen, A. Solla, Matti Kytö, Christer Söderström, J. Keskinen (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3175-3180
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume44
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Soot
Vehicle Emissions
diesel engine
soot
nucleation
Diesel engines
Nucleation
Particle size analysis
particle
combustion
particle size
Exhaust gas recirculation
Dynamometers
Gas emissions
trade-off
Particles (particulate matter)
engine

Keywords

  • diesel engine exhaust
  • diesel engines
  • diesel exhaust
  • heavy-duty vehicles

Cite this

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title = "Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust",
abstract = "Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.",
keywords = "diesel engine exhaust, diesel engines, diesel exhaust, heavy-duty vehicles",
author = "T. L{\"a}hde and T. R{\"o}nkk{\"o} and A. Virtanen and A. Solla and Matti Kyt{\"o} and Christer S{\"o}derstr{\"o}m and J. Keskinen",
year = "2010",
doi = "10.1021/es903428y",
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Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust. / Lähde, T. (Corresponding Author); Rönkkö, T.; Virtanen, A.; Solla, A.; Kytö, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Keskinen, J. (Corresponding Author).

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 44, No. 8, 2010, p. 3175-3180.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

AU - Lähde, T.

AU - Rönkkö, T.

AU - Virtanen, A.

AU - Solla, A.

AU - Kytö, Matti

AU - Söderström, Christer

AU - Keskinen, J.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.

AB - Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.

KW - diesel engine exhaust

KW - diesel engines

KW - diesel exhaust

KW - heavy-duty vehicles

U2 - 10.1021/es903428y

DO - 10.1021/es903428y

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 3175

EP - 3180

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 8

ER -