Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

T. Lähde (Corresponding Author), T. Rönkkö, A. Virtanen, A. Solla, Matti Kytö, Christer Söderström, J. Keskinen (Corresponding Author)

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    48 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3175-3180
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Volume44
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Soot
    Vehicle Emissions
    diesel engine
    soot
    nucleation
    Diesel engines
    Nucleation
    Particle size analysis
    particle
    combustion
    particle size
    Exhaust gas recirculation
    Dynamometers
    Gas emissions
    trade-off
    Particles (particulate matter)
    engine

    Keywords

    • diesel engine exhaust
    • diesel engines
    • diesel exhaust
    • heavy-duty vehicles

    Cite this

    @article{e17ddce19aee40619e74a6af7bb7df74,
    title = "Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust",
    abstract = "Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.",
    keywords = "diesel engine exhaust, diesel engines, diesel exhaust, heavy-duty vehicles",
    author = "T. L{\"a}hde and T. R{\"o}nkk{\"o} and A. Virtanen and A. Solla and Matti Kyt{\"o} and Christer S{\"o}derstr{\"o}m and J. Keskinen",
    year = "2010",
    doi = "10.1021/es903428y",
    language = "English",
    volume = "44",
    pages = "3175--3180",
    journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
    issn = "0013-936X",
    publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
    number = "8",

    }

    Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust. / Lähde, T. (Corresponding Author); Rönkkö, T.; Virtanen, A.; Solla, A.; Kytö, Matti; Söderström, Christer; Keskinen, J. (Corresponding Author).

    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 44, No. 8, 2010, p. 3175-3180.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Dependence between nonvolatile nucleation mode particle and soot number concentrations in an EGR equipped heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    AU - Lähde, T.

    AU - Rönkkö, T.

    AU - Virtanen, A.

    AU - Solla, A.

    AU - Kytö, Matti

    AU - Söderström, Christer

    AU - Keskinen, J.

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.

    AB - Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust characteristics were studied with direct tailpipe sampling on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust particle size distributions, total particle mass, and gaseous emissions were measured with different load conditions without after-treatment. The measured particle size distributions were bimodal; distinctive accumulation and nucleation modes were detected for both volatile and dry particle samples. The condensing volatile compounds changed the characteristics of the nonvolatile nucleation mode while the soot/accumulation mode characteristics (concentration and diameter) were unchanged. A clear dependence between the soot and the nonvolatile nucleation mode number concentrations was detected. While the concentration of the soot mode decreased, the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration increased. The soot mode number concentration decrease was related to soot-NOx trade-off; the decrease of the exhaust gas recirculation rate decreased soot emission and increased NOx emission. Simultaneously detected increase of the nonvolatile nucleation mode concentration may be caused by the decrease of the soot mode sink or by changed combustion characteristics. However, the total particle number concentration increased with decreasing soot mode number concentration. The proportion of the particle number concentration between the nonvolatile nucleation and soot mode followed the NO2:NO ratio linearly. While ratio NO2:NO increased the proportion of soot mode number concentration in total number concentration increased. Regardless of the mechanism that causes the balance between the soot mode and the nonvolatile nucleation mode emissions, the changes in the particle number size distribution should be taken into account while the particle mass emissions are controlled with combustion optimization.

    KW - diesel engine exhaust

    KW - diesel engines

    KW - diesel exhaust

    KW - heavy-duty vehicles

    U2 - 10.1021/es903428y

    DO - 10.1021/es903428y

    M3 - Article

    VL - 44

    SP - 3175

    EP - 3180

    JO - Environmental Science & Technology

    JF - Environmental Science & Technology

    SN - 0013-936X

    IS - 8

    ER -