Design, fabrication and characterisation of nano-imprinted single mode waveguide structures for intra-chip optical communications

John Justice, Umar Khan, Tia Korhonen, Arjen Boersma, Sjoukje Wiegersma, Mikko Karppinen, Brian Corbett

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector, the demands on bandwidth continually grow due to increased microprocessor performance and the need to access ever increasing amounts of stored data. The introduction of optical data transmission (e.g. glass fiber) to replace electronic transmission (e.g. copper wire) has alleviated the bandwidth issue for communications over distances greater than 10 meters, however, the need has arisen for optical data transfer over shorter distances such as those found inside computers. A possible solution for this is the use of low–cost single mode polymer based optical waveguides fabricated by direct patterning Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL). NIL has emerged as a scalable manufacturing technology capable of producing features down to the hundred nanometer scale with the potential for large scale (roll-to-roll) manufacturing. In this paper, we present results on the modeling, fabrication and characterization of single mode waveguides and optical components in low-loss ORMOCER™ materials. Single mode waveguides with a mode field diameter of 7 μm and passive structures such as bends, directional couplers and multi-mode interferometers (MMIs) suitable for use in 1550 nm optical interconnects were fabricated using wafer scale NIL processes. Process issues arising from the nano-imprint technique such as residual layers and angled sidewalls are modeled and investigated for excess loss and higher order mode excitation. Conclusions are drawn on the applicability of nano-imprinting to the fabrication of circuits for intrachip/ board-level optical interconnect.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOptical Interconnects XV
PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2015
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventSPIE OPTO, Optical Interconnects XV - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 7 Feb 201512 Feb 2015

Publication series

SeriesProceedings of SPIE
Volume9368
ISSN0277-786X

Conference

ConferenceSPIE OPTO, Optical Interconnects XV
Abbreviated titleSPIE OPTO
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco
Period7/02/1512/02/15

Fingerprint

optical communication
chips
waveguides
fabrication
optical interconnects
lithography
manufacturing
communication
bandwidth
directional couplers
microprocessors
data transmission
glass fibers
optical waveguides
sectors
interferometers
wafers
wire
copper
polymers

Keywords

  • intra-chip
  • nanoimprint lithography
  • on-board
  • optical interconnect
  • single mode waveguide

Cite this

Justice, J., Khan, U., Korhonen, T., Boersma, A., Wiegersma, S., Karppinen, M., & Corbett, B. (2015). Design, fabrication and characterisation of nano-imprinted single mode waveguide structures for intra-chip optical communications. In Optical Interconnects XV [93680Y] International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.. 9368 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2078974
Justice, John ; Khan, Umar ; Korhonen, Tia ; Boersma, Arjen ; Wiegersma, Sjoukje ; Karppinen, Mikko ; Corbett, Brian. / Design, fabrication and characterisation of nano-imprinted single mode waveguide structures for intra-chip optical communications. Optical Interconnects XV. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2015. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 9368).
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Justice, J, Khan, U, Korhonen, T, Boersma, A, Wiegersma, S, Karppinen, M & Corbett, B 2015, Design, fabrication and characterisation of nano-imprinted single mode waveguide structures for intra-chip optical communications. in Optical Interconnects XV., 93680Y, International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 9368, SPIE OPTO, Optical Interconnects XV, San Francisco, United States, 7/02/15. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2078974

Design, fabrication and characterisation of nano-imprinted single mode waveguide structures for intra-chip optical communications. / Justice, John; Khan, Umar; Korhonen, Tia; Boersma, Arjen; Wiegersma, Sjoukje; Karppinen, Mikko; Corbett, Brian.

Optical Interconnects XV. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2015. 93680Y (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 9368).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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AU - Karppinen, Mikko

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AB - In the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector, the demands on bandwidth continually grow due to increased microprocessor performance and the need to access ever increasing amounts of stored data. The introduction of optical data transmission (e.g. glass fiber) to replace electronic transmission (e.g. copper wire) has alleviated the bandwidth issue for communications over distances greater than 10 meters, however, the need has arisen for optical data transfer over shorter distances such as those found inside computers. A possible solution for this is the use of low–cost single mode polymer based optical waveguides fabricated by direct patterning Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL). NIL has emerged as a scalable manufacturing technology capable of producing features down to the hundred nanometer scale with the potential for large scale (roll-to-roll) manufacturing. In this paper, we present results on the modeling, fabrication and characterization of single mode waveguides and optical components in low-loss ORMOCER™ materials. Single mode waveguides with a mode field diameter of 7 μm and passive structures such as bends, directional couplers and multi-mode interferometers (MMIs) suitable for use in 1550 nm optical interconnects were fabricated using wafer scale NIL processes. Process issues arising from the nano-imprint technique such as residual layers and angled sidewalls are modeled and investigated for excess loss and higher order mode excitation. Conclusions are drawn on the applicability of nano-imprinting to the fabrication of circuits for intrachip/ board-level optical interconnect.

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KW - optical interconnect

KW - single mode waveguide

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M3 - Conference article in proceedings

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PB - International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE

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Justice J, Khan U, Korhonen T, Boersma A, Wiegersma S, Karppinen M et al. Design, fabrication and characterisation of nano-imprinted single mode waveguide structures for intra-chip optical communications. In Optical Interconnects XV. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. 2015. 93680Y. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 9368). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2078974