Design, manufacturing, and operation of movable 2 × 10 kW size rSOC system

Ville Saarinen (Corresponding Author), Jari Pennanen, Mikko Kotisaari, Olivier Thomann, Olli Himanen, S. Di Iorio, P. Hanoux, J. Aicart, K. Couturier, X. Sun, M. Chen, B. R. Sudireddy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)
    65 Downloads (Pure)


    Reversible solid oxide cell (rSOC) technology enables both electricity generation for local demands and electricity conversion into hydrogen with high power-to-gas (AC to H2) efficiency. This work describes modeling and implementation of movable “10-feet container” size rSOC system in a pilot demonstration scale (10 kW SOEC/2 kW SOFC). The selected two-stack two-module system layout is the simplest option to investigate multi-module rSOC systems in various operation modes and conditions. Special attention is also paid to heat integration: heat losses are minimized with optimized BoP component design, placement, and insulation. Reversibility, dynamic operation, and methods for efficient transitions between SOFC and SOEC modes are investigated at a system level. The developed system is highly instrumented enabling detailed system analysis, for example, the calculation of enthalpy flows and efficiencies of all BoP components. Analyses of key parameters on the performance and efficiency are presented. To explore upscaling of rSOC systems, the effects of size and structure of stack modules on the reliability and maintenance of the entire system are investigated, and as a conclusion, the construction of multi-MW scale rSOC systems are recommended to be implemented with approximately 100 kW size stack modules.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)477-487
    JournalFuel Cells
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • electrolyzer
    • fuel cell
    • hydrogen production
    • power-to-gas
    • power-to-X
    • reversible high temperature solid oxide cell system
    • rSOC
    • SOEC
    • SOFC
    • solid oxide electrolyzer cell system
    • solid oxide fuel cell system


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