Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system: CFD- modeling and experimental validation

K. Nikiforow (Corresponding Author), P. Koski, H. Karimäki, J. Ihonen, V. Alopaeus

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    18 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60%-70% from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)14952-14970
    JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
    Volume41
    Issue number33
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    ejectors
    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)
    computational fluid dynamics
    fuel cells
    Computational fluid dynamics
    Turbulence models
    membranes
    Hydrogen
    protons
    turbulence models
    hydrogen
    Gases
    gases
    Gages
    axisymmetric flow
    Printing
    printing
    coverings
    simulation
    Air

    Keywords

    • CFD
    • ejector
    • hydrogen recirculation
    • PEMFC
    • turbulence models

    Cite this

    @article{9922dcaec1894c64b30cacd570188ad1,
    title = "Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system: CFD- modeling and experimental validation",
    abstract = "Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60{\%}-70{\%} from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.",
    keywords = "CFD, ejector, hydrogen recirculation, PEMFC, turbulence models",
    author = "K. Nikiforow and P. Koski and H. Karim{\"a}ki and J. Ihonen and V. Alopaeus",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.06.122",
    language = "English",
    volume = "41",
    pages = "14952--14970",
    journal = "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy",
    issn = "0360-3199",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "33",

    }

    Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system : CFD- modeling and experimental validation. / Nikiforow, K. (Corresponding Author); Koski, P.; Karimäki, H.; Ihonen, J.; Alopaeus, V.

    In: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, No. 33, 2016, p. 14952-14970.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system

    T2 - CFD- modeling and experimental validation

    AU - Nikiforow, K.

    AU - Koski, P.

    AU - Karimäki, H.

    AU - Ihonen, J.

    AU - Alopaeus, V.

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60%-70% from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.

    AB - Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60%-70% from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.

    KW - CFD

    KW - ejector

    KW - hydrogen recirculation

    KW - PEMFC

    KW - turbulence models

    U2 - 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.06.122

    DO - 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.06.122

    M3 - Article

    VL - 41

    SP - 14952

    EP - 14970

    JO - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

    JF - International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

    SN - 0360-3199

    IS - 33

    ER -