Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system

CFD- modeling and experimental validation

K. Nikiforow (Corresponding Author), P. Koski, H. Karimäki, J. Ihonen, V. Alopaeus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60%-70% from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14952-14970
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume41
Issue number33
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

ejectors
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)
computational fluid dynamics
fuel cells
Computational fluid dynamics
Turbulence models
membranes
Hydrogen
protons
turbulence models
hydrogen
Gases
gases
Gages
axisymmetric flow
Printing
printing
coverings
simulation
Air

Keywords

  • CFD
  • ejector
  • hydrogen recirculation
  • PEMFC
  • turbulence models

Cite this

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title = "Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system: CFD- modeling and experimental validation",
abstract = "Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60{\%}-70{\%} from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.",
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author = "K. Nikiforow and P. Koski and H. Karim{\"a}ki and J. Ihonen and V. Alopaeus",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.06.122",
language = "English",
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Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system : CFD- modeling and experimental validation. / Nikiforow, K. (Corresponding Author); Koski, P.; Karimäki, H.; Ihonen, J.; Alopaeus, V.

In: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, No. 33, 2016, p. 14952-14970.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Designing a hydrogen gas ejector for 5 kW stationary PEMFC system

T2 - CFD- modeling and experimental validation

AU - Nikiforow, K.

AU - Koski, P.

AU - Karimäki, H.

AU - Ihonen, J.

AU - Alopaeus, V.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60%-70% from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.

AB - Ejectors are durable and inexpensive equipment for realizing hydrogen recirculation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems. In the present work, a hydrogen recirculation ejector targeted for high turndown ratio operation in a 5 kWe PEMFC system was designed, manufactured with 3D-printing, and characterized experimentally with both air and humid hydrogen. The ejector was modeled at the experimental conditions with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assuming 2D axisymmetric flow and with three turbulence models. A systematic comparison of experimental and simulation results was conducted with humid hydrogen at conditions covering the entire operating map up to 6 bar gauge primary pressure. The simulation results deviate on average 60%-70% from the experimental results, the deviation being less pronounced at conditions relevant in PEMFC applications. The SST k-? turbulence model was identified to agree best overall with the experimental data while the RNG and Realizable k-e turbulence models were observed to accurately predict the position of maximum ejector efficiency. Hence, the SST k-? model is more useful for predicting ejector performance while one of the two k-e models should be adopted when optimizing ejector design.

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KW - turbulence models

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