Destruction of alkali chlorides using sulphur and ferric sulphate during grate combustion of corn stover and wood chip blends

Martti Aho (Corresponding Author), Kari Paakkinen, Raili Taipale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sulphur containing additives were used to destroy alkali chlorides in the furnace of a 100 kW grate reactor during combustion of a blend containing 40 ± 4% (based on energy content) corn stover with wood chips. Ferric sulphate spray, when added to zones where alkali chlorides have already been formed and gas temperature is <1000 °C, can destroy a significant portion of alkali chlorides in the furnace even at dosage S/Cl = 0.4–0.6 and prevent high temperature chlorine corrosion of superheaters. This dosage can increase SO2 emissions from about 100 (without additives) to 250–350 mg/Nm3 6% O2. Additive costs can be estimated at 0.4–1 €/MW h electricity with blends containing 40–100% corn stover, assuming a 30% efficiency in electricity production. Mixing ferric sulphate with fuel feed had little effectiveness compared to spraying it into the upper furnace. Elemental sulphur mixed with the fuel feed was much less effective than the ferric sulphate spray. The minimum dosage of elemental sulphur needed to prevent Cl deposition (S/Cl = 3) lead to high SO2 formation (≈2000 mg/Nm3 6% O2).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)562-569
Number of pages8
JournalFuel
Volume103
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Alkalies
Sulfur
Chlorides
Wood
Furnaces
Electricity
Superheaters
Chlorine
Spraying
Gases
Corrosion
Temperature
sulfur monochloride
ferric sulfate
Sulfates
Costs

Keywords

  • Additives
  • combustion
  • deposits
  • grate

Cite this

Aho, Martti ; Paakkinen, Kari ; Taipale, Raili. / Destruction of alkali chlorides using sulphur and ferric sulphate during grate combustion of corn stover and wood chip blends. In: Fuel. 2013 ; Vol. 103. pp. 562-569.
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title = "Destruction of alkali chlorides using sulphur and ferric sulphate during grate combustion of corn stover and wood chip blends",
abstract = "Sulphur containing additives were used to destroy alkali chlorides in the furnace of a 100 kW grate reactor during combustion of a blend containing 40 ± 4{\%} (based on energy content) corn stover with wood chips. Ferric sulphate spray, when added to zones where alkali chlorides have already been formed and gas temperature is <1000 °C, can destroy a significant portion of alkali chlorides in the furnace even at dosage S/Cl = 0.4–0.6 and prevent high temperature chlorine corrosion of superheaters. This dosage can increase SO2 emissions from about 100 (without additives) to 250–350 mg/Nm3 6{\%} O2. Additive costs can be estimated at 0.4–1 €/MW h electricity with blends containing 40–100{\%} corn stover, assuming a 30{\%} efficiency in electricity production. Mixing ferric sulphate with fuel feed had little effectiveness compared to spraying it into the upper furnace. Elemental sulphur mixed with the fuel feed was much less effective than the ferric sulphate spray. The minimum dosage of elemental sulphur needed to prevent Cl deposition (S/Cl = 3) lead to high SO2 formation (≈2000 mg/Nm3 6{\%} O2).",
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author = "Martti Aho and Kari Paakkinen and Raili Taipale",
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Destruction of alkali chlorides using sulphur and ferric sulphate during grate combustion of corn stover and wood chip blends. / Aho, Martti (Corresponding Author); Paakkinen, Kari; Taipale, Raili.

In: Fuel, Vol. 103, 2013, p. 562-569.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Destruction of alkali chlorides using sulphur and ferric sulphate during grate combustion of corn stover and wood chip blends

AU - Aho, Martti

AU - Paakkinen, Kari

AU - Taipale, Raili

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Sulphur containing additives were used to destroy alkali chlorides in the furnace of a 100 kW grate reactor during combustion of a blend containing 40 ± 4% (based on energy content) corn stover with wood chips. Ferric sulphate spray, when added to zones where alkali chlorides have already been formed and gas temperature is <1000 °C, can destroy a significant portion of alkali chlorides in the furnace even at dosage S/Cl = 0.4–0.6 and prevent high temperature chlorine corrosion of superheaters. This dosage can increase SO2 emissions from about 100 (without additives) to 250–350 mg/Nm3 6% O2. Additive costs can be estimated at 0.4–1 €/MW h electricity with blends containing 40–100% corn stover, assuming a 30% efficiency in electricity production. Mixing ferric sulphate with fuel feed had little effectiveness compared to spraying it into the upper furnace. Elemental sulphur mixed with the fuel feed was much less effective than the ferric sulphate spray. The minimum dosage of elemental sulphur needed to prevent Cl deposition (S/Cl = 3) lead to high SO2 formation (≈2000 mg/Nm3 6% O2).

AB - Sulphur containing additives were used to destroy alkali chlorides in the furnace of a 100 kW grate reactor during combustion of a blend containing 40 ± 4% (based on energy content) corn stover with wood chips. Ferric sulphate spray, when added to zones where alkali chlorides have already been formed and gas temperature is <1000 °C, can destroy a significant portion of alkali chlorides in the furnace even at dosage S/Cl = 0.4–0.6 and prevent high temperature chlorine corrosion of superheaters. This dosage can increase SO2 emissions from about 100 (without additives) to 250–350 mg/Nm3 6% O2. Additive costs can be estimated at 0.4–1 €/MW h electricity with blends containing 40–100% corn stover, assuming a 30% efficiency in electricity production. Mixing ferric sulphate with fuel feed had little effectiveness compared to spraying it into the upper furnace. Elemental sulphur mixed with the fuel feed was much less effective than the ferric sulphate spray. The minimum dosage of elemental sulphur needed to prevent Cl deposition (S/Cl = 3) lead to high SO2 formation (≈2000 mg/Nm3 6% O2).

KW - Additives

KW - combustion

KW - deposits

KW - grate

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.08.055

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.08.055

M3 - Article

VL - 103

SP - 562

EP - 569

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

ER -