Detection of low concentration formaldehyde gas by photonic crystal sensor fabricated by nanoimprint process in polymer material

A. Boersma, Renz J. van Ee, Ralph S.A. Stevens, Milan Saalmink, Martin D.B. Charlton, Michael E. Pollard, Ruiqi Chen, Ville Kontturi, Pentti Karioja, Teemu Alajoki

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    5 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper describes experimental measurement results for photonic crystal sensor devices which have been functionalized for gas sensing applications. The sensor consists of a two dimensional photonic crystal etched into a slab waveguide having a refractive index of 1.7-1.9. Test devices were fabricated from SiON material on silicon/ silicon dioxide platform, and also in polymer materials on silicon platform. The inorganic photonic crystals were made using direct write electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The polymeric devices were made by nano-imprint lithography using the SiON structure as the imprint master. The high refractive index polymer was composed of a TiO 2- UV resin nanocomposite having a nanoparticle fraction between 50 and 60 wt%. This resulted in a tunable refractive index between 1.7 and 1.85. Devices were functionalized for gas sensing applications by coating the surface with a chemical receptor. This responsive layer reacts with the target gas and changes its refractive index. This change causes the angle of out-coupling to change slightly. In this paper we report successful detection of formaldehyde in air at sub ppm levels, and discuss details of chemical functionalization of the PC sensor.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings Optical Sensing and Detection III
    EditorsFrancis Berghmans, Anna G. Mignani, Piet de Moor
    PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
    ISBN (Print)978-1-6284-1089-1
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventSPIE Photonics Europe, Optical Sensing and Detection III - Brussels, Belgium
    Duration: 14 Apr 201417 Apr 2014

    Publication series

    SeriesProceedings of SPIE


    ConferenceSPIE Photonics Europe, Optical Sensing and Detection III


    • e-beam processing
    • formaldehyde
    • gas sensors
    • nano-imprint lithography
    • photonic crystals


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