Detection of spoilage bacteria in beer by polymerase chain reaction

Riikka Juvonen (Corresponding Author), Reetta Satokari, Kirstie Mallison, Auli Haikara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cultivation methods for the detection of bacteria in beer, although simple and sensitive, are time-consuming and lack specificity. In this study, the sensitivity of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay consisting of an easy sample treatment and specific primers for Lactobacillus lindneri, L. brevis, Megasphaera cerevisiae, and Pectinatus spp. was improved by pre-enrichment. A pre-enrichment broth supporting the growth of lactobacilli and anaerobic beer spoilers better than currently used media was formulated. For determination of the pre-enrichment times needed for PCR detection of these contaminants, artificially contaminated beer samples were mixed with the pre-enrichment broth and incubated anaerobically at 30°C. Low levels of lactobacilli (≤10 CFU/100 ml) were detected after 1–3 days, Pectinatus spp. after 2–4 days, and M. cerevisiae after 2–3 days of pre-enrichment, depending on the strain and the alcohol content of the beer. After the pre-enrichment, the PCR analysis took <8 hr. The time saving compared to corresponding conventional methods requiring up to several weeks is marked, especially for L. lindneri, M. cerevisiae, and Pectinatus spp. Moreover, the assay described allows species- or genus-level detection of the most harmful beer spoilage bacteria in finished beer and is sensitive and simple enough for routine work.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-103
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists
Volume57
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Megasphaera cerevisiae
beers
Pectinatus
polymerase chain reaction
Lactobacillus lindneri
Bacteria
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Lactobacillus
Megasphaera
Lactobacillus brevis
assays
alcohols
spoilage bacteria
sampling
Alcohols
bacteria
methodology
Growth

Keywords

  • Beer-spoilage bacteria
  • PCR
  • Pre-enrichment
  • Rapid detection

Cite this

Juvonen, Riikka ; Satokari, Reetta ; Mallison, Kirstie ; Haikara, Auli. / Detection of spoilage bacteria in beer by polymerase chain reaction. In: Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists. 1999 ; Vol. 57, No. 3. pp. 99-103.
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Detection of spoilage bacteria in beer by polymerase chain reaction. / Juvonen, Riikka (Corresponding Author); Satokari, Reetta; Mallison, Kirstie; Haikara, Auli.

In: Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, Vol. 57, No. 3, 1999, p. 99-103.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Detection of spoilage bacteria in beer by polymerase chain reaction

AU - Juvonen, Riikka

AU - Satokari, Reetta

AU - Mallison, Kirstie

AU - Haikara, Auli

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N2 - Cultivation methods for the detection of bacteria in beer, although simple and sensitive, are time-consuming and lack specificity. In this study, the sensitivity of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay consisting of an easy sample treatment and specific primers for Lactobacillus lindneri, L. brevis, Megasphaera cerevisiae, and Pectinatus spp. was improved by pre-enrichment. A pre-enrichment broth supporting the growth of lactobacilli and anaerobic beer spoilers better than currently used media was formulated. For determination of the pre-enrichment times needed for PCR detection of these contaminants, artificially contaminated beer samples were mixed with the pre-enrichment broth and incubated anaerobically at 30°C. Low levels of lactobacilli (≤10 CFU/100 ml) were detected after 1–3 days, Pectinatus spp. after 2–4 days, and M. cerevisiae after 2–3 days of pre-enrichment, depending on the strain and the alcohol content of the beer. After the pre-enrichment, the PCR analysis took <8 hr. The time saving compared to corresponding conventional methods requiring up to several weeks is marked, especially for L. lindneri, M. cerevisiae, and Pectinatus spp. Moreover, the assay described allows species- or genus-level detection of the most harmful beer spoilage bacteria in finished beer and is sensitive and simple enough for routine work.

AB - Cultivation methods for the detection of bacteria in beer, although simple and sensitive, are time-consuming and lack specificity. In this study, the sensitivity of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay consisting of an easy sample treatment and specific primers for Lactobacillus lindneri, L. brevis, Megasphaera cerevisiae, and Pectinatus spp. was improved by pre-enrichment. A pre-enrichment broth supporting the growth of lactobacilli and anaerobic beer spoilers better than currently used media was formulated. For determination of the pre-enrichment times needed for PCR detection of these contaminants, artificially contaminated beer samples were mixed with the pre-enrichment broth and incubated anaerobically at 30°C. Low levels of lactobacilli (≤10 CFU/100 ml) were detected after 1–3 days, Pectinatus spp. after 2–4 days, and M. cerevisiae after 2–3 days of pre-enrichment, depending on the strain and the alcohol content of the beer. After the pre-enrichment, the PCR analysis took <8 hr. The time saving compared to corresponding conventional methods requiring up to several weeks is marked, especially for L. lindneri, M. cerevisiae, and Pectinatus spp. Moreover, the assay described allows species- or genus-level detection of the most harmful beer spoilage bacteria in finished beer and is sensitive and simple enough for routine work.

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