Automatic sleep staging based on inter-beat fluctuations and motion signals recorded through a pressure bed sensor during sleep is presented. The analysis of the sleep was based on the three major divisions of the sleep time: Wake, non-rapid eye movement (nREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages. Twelve sleep recordings, from six females working alternate shift, with their respective annotations were used in the study. Six recordings were acquired during the night and six during the day after a night shift. A Time-Variant Autoregressive Model was used to extract features from inter-beat fluctuations which later were fed to a Support Vector Machine classifier. Accuracy, Kappa index, and percentage in wake, REM and nREM were used as performance measures. Comparison between the automatic sleep staging detection and the standard clinical annotations, shows mean values of 87% for accuracy 0.58 for kappa index, and mean errors of 5% for sleep stages. The performance measures were similar for night and day sleep recordings. In this sample of recordings, the results suggest that inter-beat fluctuations and motions acquired in non-obtrusive way carried valuable information related to the sleep macrostructure and could be used to support to the experts in extensive evaluation and monitoring of sleep.
- Heart rate variability
- pattern recognition
- sleep dynamics
- sleep staging
Mendez, M. O., Palacios-Hernandez, E. R., Alba, A., Kortelainen, J. M., Tenhunen, M. L., & Bianchi, A. M. (2017). Detection of the sleep stages throughout non-obtrusive measures of inter-beat fluctuations and motion: Night and day sleep of female shift workers. Fluctuation and Noise Letters, 16(4), . https://doi.org/10.1142/S021947751750033X