Developing Automation for Microbial Engineering: Automated Yeast Transformation Protocol

Susanna Norrbacka

Research output: ThesisMaster's thesis


The aim of this thesis was to examine whether it is beneficial to automate yeast
transformation protocol and what benefits and limitations it might have. There is
variation in pipetting techniques between people, and with automation it is possible to remove the variation. In addition, larger the sample sizes and smaller the pipetting volumes, the more useful automation becomes especially with highthroughput analysis. A quantitative research method was used in this study as the manual and automated transformation methods were compared. It was possible to get clear results and data from the methods. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast was selected to be transformed with an empty plasmid pYX212 with lithium acetate/ PEG method. Transformation mix was done with pipetting of different liquids either manually or with using liquid-handling robots. Colonies were calculated using a cell clicker, and transformation efficiency, active time and total time were compared between manual and automated methods. It is concluded that automation of yeast transformation is useful especially with larger sample sets saving active time and preventing from work-related repetitive strain injuries. Transformation efficiency was better with manual method, but the time for developing automated method was limited and the protocol can be further
developed to work better.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationMaster Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Tampere University of Applied Sciences (TAMK)
  • Koponen, Tino, Supervisor
Award date30 Dec 2022
Place of PublicationTampere
Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2022
MoE publication typeG2 Master's thesis, polytechnic Master's thesis


  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • yeast transformation
  • liquid-handling robot
  • lithium acetate
  • PEG


Dive into the research topics of 'Developing Automation for Microbial Engineering: Automated Yeast Transformation Protocol'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this