Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations

Simo Hostikka, Timo Korhonen, Tuomas Paloposki, Tuomo Rinne, Katri Matikainen, Simo Heliövaara

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    A new evacuation simulation tool has been developed with three main features: i) The tool can be used to simulate large and high density crowds, where the movement dynamics is affected by the crowd pressure. ii) The interaction between the evacuees and fire can be taken into account. iii) The decision making processes of the evacuees are modelled taking into account the socio-psychological aspects like the importance of familiar people (group dynamics) and places. The simulation tool has been implemented to the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software, and called FDS+Evac. In the experimental part, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages68
    ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-6982-3
    ISBN (Print)978-951-38-6981-6
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes
    Number2421
    ISSN1235-0605

    Fingerprint

    Fires
    Simulators
    Decision making
    Cameras
    Shopping centers
    Video cameras
    Radio frequency identification (RFID)
    Flow rate

    Keywords

    • evacuation simulation
    • modelling
    • evacuation experiments
    • RFID
    • surveillance cameras

    Cite this

    Hostikka, S., Korhonen, T., Paloposki, T., Rinne, T., Matikainen, K., & Heliövaara, S. (2007). Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, No. 2421
    Hostikka, Simo ; Korhonen, Timo ; Paloposki, Tuomas ; Rinne, Tuomo ; Matikainen, Katri ; Heliövaara, Simo. / Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 68 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 2421).
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    abstract = "A new evacuation simulation tool has been developed with three main features: i) The tool can be used to simulate large and high density crowds, where the movement dynamics is affected by the crowd pressure. ii) The interaction between the evacuees and fire can be taken into account. iii) The decision making processes of the evacuees are modelled taking into account the socio-psychological aspects like the importance of familiar people (group dynamics) and places. The simulation tool has been implemented to the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software, and called FDS+Evac. In the experimental part, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.",
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    author = "Simo Hostikka and Timo Korhonen and Tuomas Paloposki and Tuomo Rinne and Katri Matikainen and Simo Heli{\"o}vaara",
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    Hostikka, S, Korhonen, T, Paloposki, T, Rinne, T, Matikainen, K & Heliövaara, S 2007, Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, no. 2421, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

    Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations. / Hostikka, Simo; Korhonen, Timo; Paloposki, Tuomas; Rinne, Tuomo; Matikainen, Katri; Heliövaara, Simo.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 68 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 2421).

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    TY - BOOK

    T1 - Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations

    AU - Hostikka, Simo

    AU - Korhonen, Timo

    AU - Paloposki, Tuomas

    AU - Rinne, Tuomo

    AU - Matikainen, Katri

    AU - Heliövaara, Simo

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    PY - 2007

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    N2 - A new evacuation simulation tool has been developed with three main features: i) The tool can be used to simulate large and high density crowds, where the movement dynamics is affected by the crowd pressure. ii) The interaction between the evacuees and fire can be taken into account. iii) The decision making processes of the evacuees are modelled taking into account the socio-psychological aspects like the importance of familiar people (group dynamics) and places. The simulation tool has been implemented to the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software, and called FDS+Evac. In the experimental part, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.

    AB - A new evacuation simulation tool has been developed with three main features: i) The tool can be used to simulate large and high density crowds, where the movement dynamics is affected by the crowd pressure. ii) The interaction between the evacuees and fire can be taken into account. iii) The decision making processes of the evacuees are modelled taking into account the socio-psychological aspects like the importance of familiar people (group dynamics) and places. The simulation tool has been implemented to the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software, and called FDS+Evac. In the experimental part, two different types of evacuation situations were studied. The first type was evacuation drills which are normally carried out as part of the safety training of the staff in public buildings and workplaces. The second type was actual evacuations which occur every now and then. The advantage of actual evacuations is that the decision making processes are likely to be similar to what they would be in case of a real fire. The main techniques used for the observation of evacuation drills were video cameras and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). A large amount of information was obtained and the problems in the application of the observation techniques were identified. In the observation of an actual evacuation of a large shopping centre, the recordings of the surveillance cameras were used to measure the flow rates of people. The results are very promising and indicate that the collection of surveillance camera recordings from large evacuations should be started.

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    KW - modelling

    KW - evacuation experiments

    KW - RFID

    KW - surveillance cameras

    M3 - Report

    SN - 978-951-38-6981-6

    T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes

    BT - Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations

    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

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    ER -

    Hostikka S, Korhonen T, Paloposki T, Rinne T, Matikainen K, Heliövaara S. Development and validation of FDS+Evac for evacuation simulations. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007. 68 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 2421).