We have developed a gas-phase nanoparticle generator that produces stable and well-defined size distributions for TiO2. The online analyses of the gas-phase compounds and total number concentration of the generated particles as well as the off-line analysis of the filter samples confirmed the stability of the production. The major advantage of this reactor is that the test substance is directly in the aerosol phase, and thus no preprocessing is needed. This eliminates the physicochemical changes between bulk and administrated material during storing or processing. This system is easy to adjust to different experimental setups and precursors. As a result, well-characterized nanomaterials for inhalation exposure studies can be produced. At mass concentration of 30 mg/Nm3, the count mean diameter was 126 nm (geometric SD 1.6), mass mean diameter was 161 nm (2.0), mass median aerodynamic diameter was 125 nm, and the concentrations of harmful gas-phase by-products remained low. The produced powder consisted of crystals of anatase (77 vol%) and brookite (23 vol%), and its specific surface area was 69 m2/g.
Miettinen, M., Riikonen, J., Tapper, U., Backman, U., Joutsensaari, J., Auvinen, A., Lehto, V-P., & Jokiniemi, J. (2009). Development of a highly controlled gas-phase nanoparticle generator for inhalation exposure studies. Human and Experimental Toxicology, 28(6-7), 413-419. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327109105155