Development of a highly controlled gas-phase nanoparticle generator for inhalation exposure studies

Mirella Miettinen, Joakim Riikonen, Unto Tapper, Ulrika Backman, Jorma Joutsensaari, Ari Auvinen, Vesa-Pekka Lehto, Jorma Jokiniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

We have developed a gas-phase nanoparticle generator that produces stable and well-defined size distributions for TiO2. The online analyses of the gas-phase compounds and total number concentration of the generated particles as well as the off-line analysis of the filter samples confirmed the stability of the production. The major advantage of this reactor is that the test substance is directly in the aerosol phase, and thus no preprocessing is needed. This eliminates the physicochemical changes between bulk and administrated material during storing or processing. This system is easy to adjust to different experimental setups and precursors. As a result, well-characterized nanomaterials for inhalation exposure studies can be produced. At mass concentration of 30 mg/Nm3, the count mean diameter was 126 nm (geometric SD 1.6), mass mean diameter was 161 nm (2.0), mass median aerodynamic diameter was 125 nm, and the concentrations of harmful gas-phase by-products remained low. The produced powder consisted of crystals of anatase (77 vol%) and brookite (23 vol%), and its specific surface area was 69 m2/g.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-419
Number of pages7
JournalHuman and Experimental Toxicology
Volume28
Issue number6-7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Inhalation Exposure
Nanoparticles
Gases
Nanostructures
Aerosols
Nanostructured materials
Specific surface area
Powders
Byproducts
Aerodynamics
Crystals
Processing
titanium dioxide

Cite this

Miettinen, Mirella ; Riikonen, Joakim ; Tapper, Unto ; Backman, Ulrika ; Joutsensaari, Jorma ; Auvinen, Ari ; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka ; Jokiniemi, Jorma. / Development of a highly controlled gas-phase nanoparticle generator for inhalation exposure studies. In: Human and Experimental Toxicology. 2009 ; Vol. 28, No. 6-7. pp. 413-419.
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abstract = "We have developed a gas-phase nanoparticle generator that produces stable and well-defined size distributions for TiO2. The online analyses of the gas-phase compounds and total number concentration of the generated particles as well as the off-line analysis of the filter samples confirmed the stability of the production. The major advantage of this reactor is that the test substance is directly in the aerosol phase, and thus no preprocessing is needed. This eliminates the physicochemical changes between bulk and administrated material during storing or processing. This system is easy to adjust to different experimental setups and precursors. As a result, well-characterized nanomaterials for inhalation exposure studies can be produced. At mass concentration of 30 mg/Nm3, the count mean diameter was 126 nm (geometric SD 1.6), mass mean diameter was 161 nm (2.0), mass median aerodynamic diameter was 125 nm, and the concentrations of harmful gas-phase by-products remained low. The produced powder consisted of crystals of anatase (77 vol{\%}) and brookite (23 vol{\%}), and its specific surface area was 69 m2/g.",
author = "Mirella Miettinen and Joakim Riikonen and Unto Tapper and Ulrika Backman and Jorma Joutsensaari and Ari Auvinen and Vesa-Pekka Lehto and Jorma Jokiniemi",
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Miettinen, M, Riikonen, J, Tapper, U, Backman, U, Joutsensaari, J, Auvinen, A, Lehto, V-P & Jokiniemi, J 2009, 'Development of a highly controlled gas-phase nanoparticle generator for inhalation exposure studies', Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 28, no. 6-7, pp. 413-419. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327109105155

Development of a highly controlled gas-phase nanoparticle generator for inhalation exposure studies. / Miettinen, Mirella; Riikonen, Joakim; Tapper, Unto; Backman, Ulrika; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Auvinen, Ari; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Jokiniemi, Jorma.

In: Human and Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 28, No. 6-7, 2009, p. 413-419.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Miettinen, Mirella

AU - Riikonen, Joakim

AU - Tapper, Unto

AU - Backman, Ulrika

AU - Joutsensaari, Jorma

AU - Auvinen, Ari

AU - Lehto, Vesa-Pekka

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

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AB - We have developed a gas-phase nanoparticle generator that produces stable and well-defined size distributions for TiO2. The online analyses of the gas-phase compounds and total number concentration of the generated particles as well as the off-line analysis of the filter samples confirmed the stability of the production. The major advantage of this reactor is that the test substance is directly in the aerosol phase, and thus no preprocessing is needed. This eliminates the physicochemical changes between bulk and administrated material during storing or processing. This system is easy to adjust to different experimental setups and precursors. As a result, well-characterized nanomaterials for inhalation exposure studies can be produced. At mass concentration of 30 mg/Nm3, the count mean diameter was 126 nm (geometric SD 1.6), mass mean diameter was 161 nm (2.0), mass median aerodynamic diameter was 125 nm, and the concentrations of harmful gas-phase by-products remained low. The produced powder consisted of crystals of anatase (77 vol%) and brookite (23 vol%), and its specific surface area was 69 m2/g.

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