Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland

Matti Johansson, Juha Kämäri, Riitta Pipatti, Ilkka Savolainen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Markus Tähtinen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional


An integrated model to consider the future development of acidifying emissions
and their impacts on forest soils and lakes is being prepared in close collaboration
with several Finnish research institutes and IIASA. The model system
(HAKOMA) covers S02 and NOx emissions from energy use, industrial processes,
and transportation, and also NH3 emissions from agriculture, animal farming, and
industry. Future emissions are estimated on the basis of different scenarios for
energy, traffic, industry and agriculture and on the basis of alternative reduction
The sulphur deposition due to emission sources in Finland and nearby areas is
calculated using source-receptor matrices computed with a mesoscale model developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute, and the sulphur deposition due to
the long-range transport is estimated using source-receptor matrices based on the
results of EMEP. A mesoscale model is under development for nitrogen oxide
emissions. The deposition due to ammonia emissions and the long-range fraction
of nitrate deposition will be described with the results of the EMEP nitrogen
Most forest soils in Finland are in the cation buffer range. The main factors
considered in the soil model are sulphur and nitrogen deposition, base cation
deposition, depletion of the base cation inventory through outflow of sulphate ions
and biomass harvesting, and supply of base cations from mineral weathering. In
the lake model, the fluxes of anions and cations to the lake from catchment soils
and directly from the air as well as from the in-lake alkalinity generation processes
have been considered. The parameter values describing soils and lakes are selected
on the basis of survey programmes.
The preliminary results of the simulations suggest that the current reduction
plans of sulphur emissions in different countries would not stop the acidification of
forest soils in Finland. Also if Finland alone applied very strict reduction
measures, the acidification would be somewhat slower, but a considerable change
could be effected only if all countries contributing to the deposition in Finland
would strictly reduce their emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAcidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila
EditorsPekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
ISBN (Print)3-540-52213-1, 0-387-52213-1
Publication statusPublished - 1990
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material


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