Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland

Matti Johansson, Juha Kämäri, Riitta Pipatti, Ilkka Savolainen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Markus Tähtinen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

Abstract

An integrated model to consider the future development of acidifying emissions
and their impacts on forest soils and lakes is being prepared in close collaboration
with several Finnish research institutes and IIASA. The model system
(HAKOMA) covers S02 and NOx emissions from energy use, industrial processes,
and transportation, and also NH3 emissions from agriculture, animal farming, and
industry. Future emissions are estimated on the basis of different scenarios for
energy, traffic, industry and agriculture and on the basis of alternative reduction
strategies.
The sulphur deposition due to emission sources in Finland and nearby areas is
calculated using source-receptor matrices computed with a mesoscale model developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute, and the sulphur deposition due to
the long-range transport is estimated using source-receptor matrices based on the
results of EMEP. A mesoscale model is under development for nitrogen oxide
emissions. The deposition due to ammonia emissions and the long-range fraction
of nitrate deposition will be described with the results of the EMEP nitrogen
model.
Most forest soils in Finland are in the cation buffer range. The main factors
considered in the soil model are sulphur and nitrogen deposition, base cation
deposition, depletion of the base cation inventory through outflow of sulphate ions
and biomass harvesting, and supply of base cations from mineral weathering. In
the lake model, the fluxes of anions and cations to the lake from catchment soils
and directly from the air as well as from the in-lake alkalinity generation processes
have been considered. The parameter values describing soils and lakes are selected
on the basis of survey programmes.
The preliminary results of the simulations suggest that the current reduction
plans of sulphur emissions in different countries would not stop the acidification of
forest soils in Finland. Also if Finland alone applied very strict reduction
measures, the acidification would be somewhat slower, but a considerable change
could be effected only if all countries contributing to the deposition in Finland
would strictly reduce their emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAcidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila
EditorsPekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies
Place of PublicationHeidelberg
PublisherSpringer
Pages1171-1193
ISBN (Print)3-540-52213-1, 0-387-52213-1
Publication statusPublished - 1990
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

Fingerprint

acidification
cation
lake
sulfur
forest soil
agriculture
sulfur emission
matrix
nitrogen
long range transport
energy use
alkalinity
anion
outflow
weathering
ammonia
soil
catchment
sulfate
nitrate

Cite this

Johansson, M., Kämäri, J., Pipatti, R., Savolainen, I., Tuovinen, J-P., & Tähtinen, M. (1990). Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland. In P. Kauppi, P. Anttila, & K. Kenttämies (Eds.), Acidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila (pp. 1171-1193). Heidelberg: Springer.
Johansson, Matti ; Kämäri, Juha ; Pipatti, Riitta ; Savolainen, Ilkka ; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka ; Tähtinen, Markus. / Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland. Acidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila. editor / Pekka Kauppi ; Pia Anttila ; Kaarle Kenttämies. Heidelberg : Springer, 1990. pp. 1171-1193
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abstract = "An integrated model to consider the future development of acidifying emissionsand their impacts on forest soils and lakes is being prepared in close collaborationwith several Finnish research institutes and IIASA. The model system(HAKOMA) covers S02 and NOx emissions from energy use, industrial processes,and transportation, and also NH3 emissions from agriculture, animal farming, andindustry. Future emissions are estimated on the basis of different scenarios forenergy, traffic, industry and agriculture and on the basis of alternative reductionstrategies.The sulphur deposition due to emission sources in Finland and nearby areas iscalculated using source-receptor matrices computed with a mesoscale model developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute, and the sulphur deposition due tothe long-range transport is estimated using source-receptor matrices based on theresults of EMEP. A mesoscale model is under development for nitrogen oxideemissions. The deposition due to ammonia emissions and the long-range fractionof nitrate deposition will be described with the results of the EMEP nitrogenmodel.Most forest soils in Finland are in the cation buffer range. The main factorsconsidered in the soil model are sulphur and nitrogen deposition, base cationdeposition, depletion of the base cation inventory through outflow of sulphate ionsand biomass harvesting, and supply of base cations from mineral weathering. Inthe lake model, the fluxes of anions and cations to the lake from catchment soilsand directly from the air as well as from the in-lake alkalinity generation processeshave been considered. The parameter values describing soils and lakes are selectedon the basis of survey programmes.The preliminary results of the simulations suggest that the current reductionplans of sulphur emissions in different countries would not stop the acidification offorest soils in Finland. Also if Finland alone applied very strict reductionmeasures, the acidification would be somewhat slower, but a considerable changecould be effected only if all countries contributing to the deposition in Finlandwould strictly reduce their emissions.",
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editor = "Pekka Kauppi and Pia Anttila and Kaarle Kentt{\"a}mies",
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Johansson, M, Kämäri, J, Pipatti, R, Savolainen, I, Tuovinen, J-P & Tähtinen, M 1990, Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland. in P Kauppi, P Anttila & K Kenttämies (eds), Acidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila. Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 1171-1193.

Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland. / Johansson, Matti; Kämäri, Juha; Pipatti, Riitta; Savolainen, Ilkka; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Tähtinen, Markus.

Acidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila. ed. / Pekka Kauppi; Pia Anttila; Kaarle Kenttämies. Heidelberg : Springer, 1990. p. 1171-1193.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

TY - CHAP

T1 - Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland

AU - Johansson, Matti

AU - Kämäri, Juha

AU - Pipatti, Riitta

AU - Savolainen, Ilkka

AU - Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka

AU - Tähtinen, Markus

PY - 1990

Y1 - 1990

N2 - An integrated model to consider the future development of acidifying emissionsand their impacts on forest soils and lakes is being prepared in close collaborationwith several Finnish research institutes and IIASA. The model system(HAKOMA) covers S02 and NOx emissions from energy use, industrial processes,and transportation, and also NH3 emissions from agriculture, animal farming, andindustry. Future emissions are estimated on the basis of different scenarios forenergy, traffic, industry and agriculture and on the basis of alternative reductionstrategies.The sulphur deposition due to emission sources in Finland and nearby areas iscalculated using source-receptor matrices computed with a mesoscale model developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute, and the sulphur deposition due tothe long-range transport is estimated using source-receptor matrices based on theresults of EMEP. A mesoscale model is under development for nitrogen oxideemissions. The deposition due to ammonia emissions and the long-range fractionof nitrate deposition will be described with the results of the EMEP nitrogenmodel.Most forest soils in Finland are in the cation buffer range. The main factorsconsidered in the soil model are sulphur and nitrogen deposition, base cationdeposition, depletion of the base cation inventory through outflow of sulphate ionsand biomass harvesting, and supply of base cations from mineral weathering. Inthe lake model, the fluxes of anions and cations to the lake from catchment soilsand directly from the air as well as from the in-lake alkalinity generation processeshave been considered. The parameter values describing soils and lakes are selectedon the basis of survey programmes.The preliminary results of the simulations suggest that the current reductionplans of sulphur emissions in different countries would not stop the acidification offorest soils in Finland. Also if Finland alone applied very strict reductionmeasures, the acidification would be somewhat slower, but a considerable changecould be effected only if all countries contributing to the deposition in Finlandwould strictly reduce their emissions.

AB - An integrated model to consider the future development of acidifying emissionsand their impacts on forest soils and lakes is being prepared in close collaborationwith several Finnish research institutes and IIASA. The model system(HAKOMA) covers S02 and NOx emissions from energy use, industrial processes,and transportation, and also NH3 emissions from agriculture, animal farming, andindustry. Future emissions are estimated on the basis of different scenarios forenergy, traffic, industry and agriculture and on the basis of alternative reductionstrategies.The sulphur deposition due to emission sources in Finland and nearby areas iscalculated using source-receptor matrices computed with a mesoscale model developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute, and the sulphur deposition due tothe long-range transport is estimated using source-receptor matrices based on theresults of EMEP. A mesoscale model is under development for nitrogen oxideemissions. The deposition due to ammonia emissions and the long-range fractionof nitrate deposition will be described with the results of the EMEP nitrogenmodel.Most forest soils in Finland are in the cation buffer range. The main factorsconsidered in the soil model are sulphur and nitrogen deposition, base cationdeposition, depletion of the base cation inventory through outflow of sulphate ionsand biomass harvesting, and supply of base cations from mineral weathering. Inthe lake model, the fluxes of anions and cations to the lake from catchment soilsand directly from the air as well as from the in-lake alkalinity generation processeshave been considered. The parameter values describing soils and lakes are selectedon the basis of survey programmes.The preliminary results of the simulations suggest that the current reductionplans of sulphur emissions in different countries would not stop the acidification offorest soils in Finland. Also if Finland alone applied very strict reductionmeasures, the acidification would be somewhat slower, but a considerable changecould be effected only if all countries contributing to the deposition in Finlandwould strictly reduce their emissions.

M3 - Chapter or book article

SN - 3-540-52213-1

SN - 0-387-52213-1

SP - 1171

EP - 1193

BT - Acidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila

A2 - Kauppi, Pekka

A2 - Anttila, Pia

A2 - Kenttämies, Kaarle

PB - Springer

CY - Heidelberg

ER -

Johansson M, Kämäri J, Pipatti R, Savolainen I, Tuovinen J-P, Tähtinen M. Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland. In Kauppi P, Anttila P, Kenttämies K, editors, Acidification in Finland. Ed. by P. Kauppi, K. Kenttämies & P. Anttila. Heidelberg: Springer. 1990. p. 1171-1193