Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland

Matti Johansson, Juha Kämäri, Riitta Pipatti, Ilkka Savolainen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Markus Tähtinen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional


An integrated model to consider the future development of acidifying emissions and their impacts on forest soils and lakes is being prepared in close collaboration with several Finnish research institutes and IIASA. The model system (HAKOMA) covers S02 and NOx emissions from energy use, industrial processes, and transportation, and also NH3 emissions from agriculture, animal farming, and industry. Future emissions are estimated on the basis of different scenarios for energy, traffic, industry and agriculture and on the basis of alternative reduction strategies.

The sulphur deposition due to emission sources in Finland and nearby areas is calculated using source-receptor matrices computed with a mesoscale model developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute, and the sulphur deposition due to the long-range transport is estimated using source-receptor matrices based on the results of EMEP. A mesoscale model is under development for nitrogen oxide emissions. The deposition due to ammonia emissions and the long-range fraction of nitrate deposition will be described with the results of the EMEP nitrogen model.

Most forest soils in Finland are in the cation buffer range. The main factors considered in the soil model are sulphur and nitrogen deposition, base cation deposition, depletion of the base cation inventory through outflow of sulphate ions and biomass harvesting, and supply of base cations from mineral weathering. In the lake model, the fluxes of anions and cations to the lake from catchment soils and directly from the air as well as from the in-lake alkalinity generation processes have been considered. The parameter values describing soils and lakes are selected on the basis of survey programmes.

The preliminary results of the simulations suggest that the current reduction plans of sulphur emissions in different countries would not stop the acidification of forest soils in Finland. Also if Finland alone applied very strict reduction measures, the acidification would be somewhat slower, but a considerable change could be effected only if all countries contributing to the deposition in Finland would strictly reduce their emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAcidification in Finland
EditorsPekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies
Place of PublicationBerlin - Heidelberg
ISBN (Print)978-3-540-52213-3, 978-0-387-52213-5
Publication statusPublished - 1990
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material


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