Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena

Hiroki Hiroki Akamatsu, Luciano Gottardi, Jan van der Kuur, Cor P. de Vries, Kevin Ravensberg, Joseph S. Adams, Simon R. Bandler, Marcel P. Bruijn, James A. Chervenak, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Mikko Kiviranta, A.J. van der Linden, Brian D. Jackson, Stephen J. Smith

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We are developing the frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument on board of the future European X-Ray observatory Athena. The X-IFU instrument consists of an array of ~3840 TESs with a high quantum efficiency (>90 %) and spectral resolution ?E=2.5 eV @ 7 keV (E/?E ~2800). FDM is currently the baseline readout system for the X-IFU instrument. Using high quality factor LC filters and room temperature electronics developed at SRON and low-noise two stage SQUID amplifiers provided by VTT, we have recently demonstrated good performance with the FDM readout of Mo/Au TES calorimeters with Au/Bi absorbers. An integrated noise equivalent power resolution of about 2.0 eV at 1.7 MHz has been demonstrated with a pixel from a new TES array from NASA/Goddard (GSFC-A2). We have achieved X-ray energy resolutions ~2.5 eV at AC bias frequency at 1.7 MHz in the single pixel read-out. We have also demonstrated for the first time an X-ray energy resolution around 3.0 eV in a 6 pixel FDM read-out with TES array (GSFC-A1). In this paper we report on the single pixel performance of these microcalorimeters under MHz AC bias, and further results of the performance of these pixels under FDM.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
    PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventSPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation - Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Duration: 26 Jun 20161 Jul 2016

    Publication series

    SeriesProceedings of SPIE
    Volume9905
    ISSN0277-786X

    Conference

    ConferenceSPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation
    CountryUnited Kingdom
    CityEdinburgh
    Period26/06/161/07/16

    Fingerprint

    multiplexing
    pixels
    calorimeters
    x rays
    sensors
    readout
    alternating current
    spectral resolution
    low noise
    quantum efficiency
    Q factors
    absorbers
    observatories
    amplifiers
    filters
    energy
    room temperature
    electronics

    Keywords

    • Athena
    • frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out
    • TESs
    • X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)
    • X-ray microcalorimeter

    Cite this

    Hiroki Akamatsu, H., Gottardi, L., van der Kuur, J., de Vries, C. P., Ravensberg, K., Adams, J. S., ... Smith, S. J. (2016). Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena. In Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray [99055S] International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.. 9905 https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232805
    Hiroki Akamatsu, Hiroki ; Gottardi, Luciano ; van der Kuur, Jan ; de Vries, Cor P. ; Ravensberg, Kevin ; Adams, Joseph S. ; Bandler, Simon R. ; Bruijn, Marcel P. ; Chervenak, James A. ; Kilbourne, Caroline A. ; Kiviranta, Mikko ; van der Linden, A.J. ; Jackson, Brian D. ; Smith, Stephen J. / Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena. Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2016. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 9905).
    @inproceedings{cc4cbecc3e7e4f9eae8b4ea329dc0139,
    title = "Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena",
    abstract = "We are developing the frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument on board of the future European X-Ray observatory Athena. The X-IFU instrument consists of an array of ~3840 TESs with a high quantum efficiency (>90 {\%}) and spectral resolution ?E=2.5 eV @ 7 keV (E/?E ~2800). FDM is currently the baseline readout system for the X-IFU instrument. Using high quality factor LC filters and room temperature electronics developed at SRON and low-noise two stage SQUID amplifiers provided by VTT, we have recently demonstrated good performance with the FDM readout of Mo/Au TES calorimeters with Au/Bi absorbers. An integrated noise equivalent power resolution of about 2.0 eV at 1.7 MHz has been demonstrated with a pixel from a new TES array from NASA/Goddard (GSFC-A2). We have achieved X-ray energy resolutions ~2.5 eV at AC bias frequency at 1.7 MHz in the single pixel read-out. We have also demonstrated for the first time an X-ray energy resolution around 3.0 eV in a 6 pixel FDM read-out with TES array (GSFC-A1). In this paper we report on the single pixel performance of these microcalorimeters under MHz AC bias, and further results of the performance of these pixels under FDM.",
    keywords = "Athena, frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out, TESs, X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), X-ray microcalorimeter",
    author = "{Hiroki Akamatsu}, Hiroki and Luciano Gottardi and {van der Kuur}, Jan and {de Vries}, {Cor P.} and Kevin Ravensberg and Adams, {Joseph S.} and Bandler, {Simon R.} and Bruijn, {Marcel P.} and Chervenak, {James A.} and Kilbourne, {Caroline A.} and Mikko Kiviranta and {van der Linden}, A.J. and Jackson, {Brian D.} and Smith, {Stephen J.}",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.1117/12.2232805",
    language = "English",
    series = "Proceedings of SPIE",
    publisher = "International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE",
    booktitle = "Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray",
    address = "United States",

    }

    Hiroki Akamatsu, H, Gottardi, L, van der Kuur, J, de Vries, CP, Ravensberg, K, Adams, JS, Bandler, SR, Bruijn, MP, Chervenak, JA, Kilbourne, CA, Kiviranta, M, van der Linden, AJ, Jackson, BD & Smith, SJ 2016, Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena. in Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray., 99055S, International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 9905, SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 26/06/16. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232805

    Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena. / Hiroki Akamatsu, Hiroki; Gottardi, Luciano; van der Kuur, Jan; de Vries, Cor P.; Ravensberg, Kevin; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Bruijn, Marcel P.; Chervenak, James A.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kiviranta, Mikko; van der Linden, A.J.; Jackson, Brian D.; Smith, Stephen J.

    Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE, 2016. 99055S (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 9905).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Hiroki Akamatsu, Hiroki

    AU - Gottardi, Luciano

    AU - van der Kuur, Jan

    AU - de Vries, Cor P.

    AU - Ravensberg, Kevin

    AU - Adams, Joseph S.

    AU - Bandler, Simon R.

    AU - Bruijn, Marcel P.

    AU - Chervenak, James A.

    AU - Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    AU - Kiviranta, Mikko

    AU - van der Linden, A.J.

    AU - Jackson, Brian D.

    AU - Smith, Stephen J.

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    N2 - We are developing the frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument on board of the future European X-Ray observatory Athena. The X-IFU instrument consists of an array of ~3840 TESs with a high quantum efficiency (>90 %) and spectral resolution ?E=2.5 eV @ 7 keV (E/?E ~2800). FDM is currently the baseline readout system for the X-IFU instrument. Using high quality factor LC filters and room temperature electronics developed at SRON and low-noise two stage SQUID amplifiers provided by VTT, we have recently demonstrated good performance with the FDM readout of Mo/Au TES calorimeters with Au/Bi absorbers. An integrated noise equivalent power resolution of about 2.0 eV at 1.7 MHz has been demonstrated with a pixel from a new TES array from NASA/Goddard (GSFC-A2). We have achieved X-ray energy resolutions ~2.5 eV at AC bias frequency at 1.7 MHz in the single pixel read-out. We have also demonstrated for the first time an X-ray energy resolution around 3.0 eV in a 6 pixel FDM read-out with TES array (GSFC-A1). In this paper we report on the single pixel performance of these microcalorimeters under MHz AC bias, and further results of the performance of these pixels under FDM.

    AB - We are developing the frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument on board of the future European X-Ray observatory Athena. The X-IFU instrument consists of an array of ~3840 TESs with a high quantum efficiency (>90 %) and spectral resolution ?E=2.5 eV @ 7 keV (E/?E ~2800). FDM is currently the baseline readout system for the X-IFU instrument. Using high quality factor LC filters and room temperature electronics developed at SRON and low-noise two stage SQUID amplifiers provided by VTT, we have recently demonstrated good performance with the FDM readout of Mo/Au TES calorimeters with Au/Bi absorbers. An integrated noise equivalent power resolution of about 2.0 eV at 1.7 MHz has been demonstrated with a pixel from a new TES array from NASA/Goddard (GSFC-A2). We have achieved X-ray energy resolutions ~2.5 eV at AC bias frequency at 1.7 MHz in the single pixel read-out. We have also demonstrated for the first time an X-ray energy resolution around 3.0 eV in a 6 pixel FDM read-out with TES array (GSFC-A1). In this paper we report on the single pixel performance of these microcalorimeters under MHz AC bias, and further results of the performance of these pixels under FDM.

    KW - Athena

    KW - frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out

    KW - TESs

    KW - X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)

    KW - X-ray microcalorimeter

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    DO - 10.1117/12.2232805

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

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    BT - Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray

    PB - International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE

    ER -

    Hiroki Akamatsu H, Gottardi L, van der Kuur J, de Vries CP, Ravensberg K, Adams JS et al. Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena. In Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. International Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE. 2016. 99055S. (Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 9905). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232805