Development of frequency domain multiplexing for the X-ray Integral Field unit (X-IFU) on the Athena

Hiroki Hiroki Akamatsu, Luciano Gottardi, Jan van der Kuur, Cor P. de Vries, Kevin Ravensberg, Joseph S. Adams, Simon R. Bandler, Marcel P. Bruijn, James A. Chervenak, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Mikko Kiviranta, A.J. van der Linden, Brian D. Jackson, Stephen J. Smith

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)


    We are developing the frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) instrument on board of the future European X-Ray observatory Athena. The X-IFU instrument consists of an array of ~3840 TESs with a high quantum efficiency (>90 %) and spectral resolution ?E=2.5 eV @ 7 keV (E/?E ~2800). FDM is currently the baseline readout system for the X-IFU instrument. Using high quality factor LC filters and room temperature electronics developed at SRON and low-noise two stage SQUID amplifiers provided by VTT, we have recently demonstrated good performance with the FDM readout of Mo/Au TES calorimeters with Au/Bi absorbers. An integrated noise equivalent power resolution of about 2.0 eV at 1.7 MHz has been demonstrated with a pixel from a new TES array from NASA/Goddard (GSFC-A2). We have achieved X-ray energy resolutions ~2.5 eV at AC bias frequency at 1.7 MHz in the single pixel read-out. We have also demonstrated for the first time an X-ray energy resolution around 3.0 eV in a 6 pixel FDM read-out with TES array (GSFC-A1). In this paper we report on the single pixel performance of these microcalorimeters under MHz AC bias, and further results of the performance of these pixels under FDM.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
    PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics SPIE
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventSPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation - Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    Duration: 26 Jun 20161 Jul 2016

    Publication series

    SeriesProceedings of SPIE


    ConferenceSPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation
    Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


    • Athena
    • frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) read-out
    • TESs
    • X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)
    • X-ray microcalorimeter
    • OtaNano


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